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259 "improvements in the energy content and storage capacity of rechargeable batteries": Batteries in a Portable World: A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-Engineers, 2nd Edition, Isidor Buchmann (Cadex Electronics, 2001) 260 "Nanotextured electrodes": "Nanostructured Electrodes and the Low-Temperature Performance of Li-Ion Batteries," Charles R. Sides and Charles R. Martin, Advanced Materials, 17, 128 (2005); "High-Rate, Long-Life Ni-Sn Nanostructured Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries," J. Ha.s.soun, S. Panero, P. Simon, P. L. Taberna, and B. Scrosati, Advanced Materials, 19, 1632 (2007).
260 "silicon nanoscale wires": "High-Performance Lithium Battery Anodes Using Silicon Nanowires," C. K. Chan, H. Peng, G. Liu, K. McIlwrath, X. F. Zhang, R. A. Huggins, and Y. Cui, Nature Nanotechnology 3, 31 (2008).
260 "Nanoscale filaments woven into textiles": "Smart Nanotextiles: A Review of Materials and Applications," S. Coyle, Y. Wu, K.-T. Lau, D. DeRossi, G. Wallace, and D. Diamond, Materials Research Society Bulletin 32 (May 2007), p. 434.
260 "highly refined pharmaceutical delivery systems": "Less Is More in Medicine," A. Paul Alivisatos, Scientific American Reports 17 (2007), p. 72.
262 "Buck Rogers newspaper strips": Buck Rogers in the 25th Century: The Complete Newspaper Dailies, vol. 1, 1929-1930, written by Philip Nowlan and drawn by Richard Calkins (Hermes Press, 2008).
263 "New Wiring Idea May Make the All-Electric House Come True,": Science Ill.u.s.trated (May 1949).
264 "in 1960 sales of Superman comics": The Ten-Cent Plague: The Great Comic-Book Scare and How It Changed America, David Hajdu (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2008).
264 Adventure Comics # 247, written by Otto Binder and drawn by Al Plastino (DC Comics, 1958); reprinted in Legion of Superheroes Archives, vol. 1 (DC Comics, reissue edition, 1991).
265 Adventure # 321, written by Edmond Hamilton and drawn by John Forte (DC Comics, June 1964); reprinted in Showcase Presents Legion of Superheroes, vol. 1 (DC Comics, 2007).
265-266 "Similarly, over at Marvel Comics": See, for example, Marvel Masterworks Atlas Era Tales to Astonish, vol. 1 (Marvel Comics, 2006) and vol. 2 (Marvel Comics, 2008); Marvel Masterworks Atlas Era Tales of Suspense, vol. 1 (Marvel Comics, 2006) and vol. 2 (Marvel Comics, 2008); Amazing Fantasy Omnibus (Marvel Comics, 2007).
267 Tales to Astonish #13, "I Challenged Groot! the Monster from Planet X!" written by Stan Lee and Larry Lieber and drawn by Jack Kirby (Marvel Comics, Nov. 1960); reprinted in Marvel Masterworks Atlas Era Tales to Astonish, vol. 2 (Marvel Comics, 2008).
268 Strange Tales # 90, "Orrgo . . . the Unconquerable," written by Stan Lee and Larry Lieber and drawn by Jack Kirby (Marvel Comics, Nov. 1961).
As mentioned in the introduction, one reason I have avoided an historical approach to relating the principles of quantum mechanics (aside from the not inconsequential fact that I am not an historian of science) is that there already exist many excellent histories of this period in physics. Readers interested in learning more about such questions as "what did Bohr know and when did he know it?" may enjoy Thirty Years That Shook Physics: The Story of Quantum Theory by George Gamow (Dover, 1985) as well as The Great Physicists from Galileo to Einstein (Dover, 1988) by the same author; Barbara Lovett Cline's Men Who Made a New Physics (University of Chicago Press, 1987); Quantum Legacy: The Discovery that Changed Our Universe by Barry Parker (Prometheus Books, 2002); Reading the Mind of G.o.d: In Search of the Principles of Universality by James Treffil (Anchor, 1989); Brian Cathcart's The Fly in the Cathedral: How a Group of Cambridge Scientists Won the International Race to Split the Atom (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2005); and Gino Segre's Faust in Copenhagen: A Struggle for the Soul of Physics (Viking, 2007).
The real superheroes of science who pioneered this field of physics receive their due in several excellent biographies, such as Niels Bohr: A Centenary Volume, edited by A. P. French and P. J. Kennedy (Harvard University Press, 1985); The Strangest Man: The Hidden Life of Paul Dirac, Mystic of the Atom by Graham Farmelo (Basic Books, 2009); Beyond Uncertainty: Heisenberg, Quantum Physics and the Bomb, David C. Ca.s.sidy (Bellevue Literary Press, reprinted in 2010); Schrodinger: Life and Thought, Walter Moore (Cambridge University Press, 1989); Abraham Pais's Niels Bohr's Times: in Physics, Philosophy and Polity (Claredon Press/Oxford University Press, 1991) and Subtle is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein by (Oxford University Press, 1982); Einstein: His Life and Universe, Walter Isaacson (Simon and Schuster, 2007); Jeremy Bernstein's Oppenheimer: Portrait of an Enigma (Ivan R. Dee, 2004); The End of the Certain World: The Life and Science of Max Born by Nancy Thorndike Greenspan (Basic Books, 2005); Susan Quinn's Marie Curie: A Life (Simon & Schuster, 1995); and Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics by Ruth Lewin Sime, (University of California Press, 1996). The life of n.o.bel Laureate Enrico Fermi is described in Enrico Fermi, Physicist by n.o.bel Laureate Emilio Segre (University of Chicago Press, 1995); Fermi Remembered , edited by n.o.bel Laureate James Cronin; and Atoms in the Family: My Life with Enrico Fermi by his wife Laura Fermi (University of Chicago Press, 1995). I have not yet read the forthcoming The Many Worlds of Hugh Everett III: Multiple Universes, Mutual a.s.sured Destruction, and the Meltdown of a Nuclear Family by Peter Byrne (Oxford University Press, 2010) but I suspect that it will be an enlightening read on at least some parallel Earths you may find yourself.
Those who would like some pictures mixed in with their words can find several excellent graphic novels that cover similar topics as those mentioned above. In particular G. T. Labs' Suspended in Language by Jim Ottaviani and Leland Purvis highlights the life of Niels Bohr; Fallout, by Ottaviani, Janine Johnstone, Steve Lieber, Vince Locke, Bernie Mireault and Jeff Parker discusses J. Robert Oppenheimer and Leo Szilard and the development of the atomic bomb; and Ottaviani's and collaborators' Two-Fisted Science covers, among others, Richard Feynman, Bohr, and Werner Heisenberg, while graphic discussions of quantum theory can be found in Introducing Quantum Theory: A Graphic Guide to Science's Most Puzzling Discovery, J. P. McEvoy and Oscar Zarate (Totem Books, 1996).
Many books have tackled the challenging task of explaining quantum mechanics while forgoing mathematics. I especially recommend The Atom and Its Nucleus, George Gamow (Prentice Hall, 1961); The Story of Quantum Mechanics, Victor Guillemin (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968); The Quantum World: Quantum Physics for Everyone, Kenneth W. Ford (Harvard University Press, 2004); The Strange Story of the Quantum, second edition, Banesh Hoffman (Dover, 1959); Tony Hey and Patrick Walters' The New Quantum Universe in a revised edition (Cambridge University Press, 2003); and David Lindley's Uncertainty: Einstein, Heisenberg, Bohr, and the Struggle for the Soul of Science (Anchor, 2008). Discussions of quantum entanglement and its connection to attempts to construct a quantum computer include A Shortcut Through Time: The Path to the Quantum Computer, George Johnson (Vintage Books, 2003); Teleportation: The Impossible Leap, David Darling (John Wiley and Sons, 2005); The G.o.d Effect: Quantum Entanglement, Science's Strangest Phenomenon, Brian Clegg (St. Martin's Griffin, 2006); Einstein, Bohr and the Quantum Dilemma: From Quantum Theory to Quantum Information, second edition by Andrew Whitaker (Cambridge University Press, 2006); Entanglement by Amir Aczel (Plume, 2003); and The Age of Entanglement: When Quantum Physics was Reborn by Louisa Gilder (Vintage, 2009).
Two excellent reviews of the development of solid-state physics are Crystal Fire: The Birth of the Information Age, Michael Riordan and Lillian Hoddeson (W.W. Norton and Co., 1997); and The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution , T. R. Reid (Random House, 2001). Lillian Hoddeson's biography True Genius: The Life and Science of John Bardeen and Joel N. Shurkin's Broken Genius: The Rise and Fall of William Shockley, Creator of the Electronic Age (Palgraave MacMillan, 2006) also provide a great deal of background on the growth of this field, from the perspective of two of its founding fathers (Shockley and Bardeen were co-developers of the transistor, and Bardeen also co-discovered a microscopic theory of superconductivity, earning him his second n.o.bel Prize in Physics). The technological applications of solid-state physics are described in Computer: History of the Information Machine, second edition, by Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray (Westview Press, 2004); A History of Modern Computing , second edition, by Paul E. Ceruzzi (MIT Press, 2003); Computers: The Life Story of a Technology, Eric G. Swedin and David L. Ferro (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007); Lasers and Holography: An Introduction to Coherent Optics, second edition, Winston E. k.o.c.k, (Dover, 1981); How the Laser Happened: Adventures of a Scientist, Charles W. Townes (Oxford University Press, 2002); and They All Laughed: From Light Bulbs to Lasers: The Fascinating Stories Behind the Great Inventions that Have Changed Our Lives, Ira Flatow (Harper Perennial, 1992).
Those wishing to compare and contrast the predictions of science fiction with the reality of science may enjoy The Science in Science Fiction: 83 SF Predictions That Became Scientific Reality, Robert W. Bly (BenBella Books, 2005); Different Engines: How Science Drives Fiction and Fiction Drives Science, Mark L. Brake and Neil Hook (Macmillan, 2008); and Follies of Science: 20th Century Visions of Our Fantastic Future, Eric Dregni and Jonathan Dregni (Speck Press, 2006).
Background information on the history of the pulp magazines can be found in Cheap Thrills: The Amazing! Thrilling! Astonishing! History of Pulp Fiction, Ron Goulart (Hermes Press, 2007); Pulpwood Days Volume One: Editors You Want to Know, edited by John Locke (Off-Trail Publications, Volume 2007); Alternate Worlds: The Ill.u.s.trated History of Science Fiction, James Gunn (Prentice-Hall, 1975); Science Fiction of the 20th Century: An Ill.u.s.trated History, Frank M. Robinson (Collectors Press, 1999); The Cla.s.sic Era of American Pulp Magazines by Peter Haining (Prion Books, 2000); Pulp Culture: The Art of Fiction Magazines, Frank M. Robinson and Lawrence Davidson (Collectors Press, 1998); and The Great Pulp Heroes by Don Hutchinson (Book Republic Press, 2007).
Those who would judge these pulps by their cover will find many excellent collections of the enduring artwork that promoted these disposable fantasies, including Worlds of Tomorrow: The Amazing Universe of Science Fiction Art, Forrest J. Ackerman with Brad Linaweaver (Collectors Press, 2004); Sci-Fi Art: A Graphic History, Steve Holand (Collins Design, 2009); Pulp Art: Original Cover Paintings for the Great American Pulp Magazines, Robert Lesser (Gramercy Books, 1997); From the Pen of Paul: The Fantastic Images of Frank R. Paul, edited by Stephen D. Korshak (Shasta-Phoenix, 2009); Out of Time: Designs for the Twentieth Century, Norman Brosterman (Harry N. Abrams, 2000); and Fantastic Science-Fiction Art 1926-1954, edited by Lester Del Ray (Ballantine Books, 1975).
Readers interested in more information about Doc Savage and his merry band of adventurers will enjoy Philip Jos Farmer's "biography" of the great man, Doc Savage: His Apocalyptic Life (Doubleday, 1973); a summary of the plot of each adventure is provided in A History of the Doc Savage Adventures, Robert Michael "Bobb" Cotter (McFarland and Company, 2009); and Doc Savage's creator is profiled in Lester Dent: The Man, His Craft and His Market, by M. Martin McCarey-Laird (Hidalgo Pub. Co., 1994) and Bigger Than Life: The Creator of Doc Savage, Marilyn Cannaday (Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1990). Those interested in the secrets of the Shadow (such as his true ident.i.ty-and no, its not Lamont Cranston) can consult The Shadow Sc.r.a.pbook, by Walter B. Gibson (who wrote 284 of the 325 Shadow pulp novels, including the first 112) (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979); Gangland's Doom: The Shadow of the Pulps by Frank Eisgruber Jr. (Creates.p.a.ce, 2007); Chronology of Shadows: A Timeline of The Shadow's Exploits by Rick Lai (Creates.p.a.ce, 2007); and Pulp Heroes of the Thirties, edited by James Van Hise (Midnight Graffiti, 1994).
This is a golden age for fans of Golden Age pulps, comic strips, and comic books. There are many publishers who are reprinting, often in high-resolution, large-format hardcovers, comic strips from the 1920s and 1930s, featuring the first appearances of d.i.c.k Tracy, Little Orphan Annie, Maggie and Jiggs in Bringing Up Father, Popeye in Thimble Theater, and Walt and Skeezix in Gasoline Alley. Several volumes of Phil Nowlan's and d.i.c.k Calkin's Buck Rogers in the 25th Century (Hermes Press) and Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon (Checker Press) are available. There are also hard-cover reprints of the Gold Key comics, with at least four volumes of Dr. Solar-Man of the Atom by Paul S. Newman and Matt Murphy (Dark Horse Books) in print. A string of issues of DC Comics' Strange Adventures from 1955 to 1956 has been reprinted in black and white in an inexpensive Showcase Presents volume (DC Comics, 2008). Several volumes of the Marvel Comics Tales to Astonish and Tales of Suspense from this time period are also available, in Marvel Masterworks Atlas Era hardcovers (Marvel Publishing). The pulps themselves are also returning to print, and Sanctum Productions/Nostalgia Ventures every month is publishing cla.s.sic Shadow and Doc Savage adventures from the 1930s and 1940s, often with the original interior and cover artwork reproduced. Some of the above, along with copies of Amazing Stories from the 1920s and 1930s, are available as e-books. We can now, in the present, download and read on our electronic book readers stories from the past, predicting what life would be like in the world of tomorrow. This is the future no one saw coming!