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100 Plaintiff in Error, Brief to the Supreme Court of the United States, Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, No. 70-October Term, 1904 (hereafter "Jacobson USSC Brief "), esp. 19. See also ibid., 11 (schools) and 26 (no exemptions). "Involves Vaccination Law," WP, Dec. 7, 1904, 5. "Final Appeal on Vaccination," Boston Herald, Dec. 7, 1904, 16.

101 Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 15, 16 (1905). "Jacobson USSC Brief," esp. 8.

102 "Jacobson USSC Brief," 3031.

103 Lisa Paddock, "Harlan, John Marshall," American National Biography Online, http://www.anb.org/articles/11/11-00385.html; accessed Jul. 21, 2010. See Linda Przybyszewski, The Republic According to John Marshall Harlan (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999).

104 Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, 559 (1896). Northern Securities Co. v. U.S., 193 U.S. 197, 351 (1904).



105 Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 2224 (1905).

106 Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 26 (1905).

107 Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 2729 (1905).

108 Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 28 (1905).

109 Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 2839 (1905).

110 Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 39 (1905).

111 "Compulsory Vaccination," editorial, Wisconsin Medical Journal, 3 (March 1905), 588. Dr. Hix of Binghamton, New York, in New York State Department of Health, Proceedings of the Conference of Sanitary Officers of the State of New York (Albany, 1905), 38. "Compulsory Vaccination," Boston Journal, Feb. 22, 1905, 6. Unt.i.tled editorial, NYT, Feb. 22, 1905, 6. See also "Vaccination Right," BG, Feb. 21, 1905, 7; "Vaccination by Law," WP, Feb. 21, 1905, 11; "A Test Case," CC, Feb. 25, 1905, 12.

112 Unt.i.tled editorial item, Book Notes, May 6, 1905, 71. "Compulsory Vaccination," Medical Advance, March 1905, 166. On antivaccinationism in the 1910s and 1920s, see James Colgrove, State of Immunity, 4580.

113 "The State's Police Power," NYTRIB, Feb. 26, 1905, 8.

114 Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45 ( 1905). E. F. [Ernst Freund], "Limitations of Hours of Labor and the Federal Supreme Court," Green Bag, 17 (July 1905), 41117.

115 Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45, 72 (1905).

116 Lochner v. New York, 198 U.S. 45, 7576 (1905).

117 Charles Warren, "The Progressiveness of the United States Supreme Court," Columbia Law Review , 13 (1913). On the "myth" of Lochner, see William J. Novak, "The Myth of the 'Weak' American State," American Historical Review, 113 (2008): 75272. For a fuller discussion of legal progressivism and the police power after Lochner, see Willrich, City of Courts, esp. 96115. See also Morton J. Horwitz, The Transformation of American Law, 18701960: The Crisis of Legal Orthodoxy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).

118 William Howard Taft, The Anti-Trust Act and the Supreme Court (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1914), 4344, 45.

119 Investigation Case Files of the Bureau of Investigation 19081922, Old German Files, 19091921, National Archives and Record Administration, Case # 17615; Case t.i.tle: Sedition; Suspect Name: Lora C. Little. Ibid., Case # 175676; Case t.i.tle: Neutrality Matter; Suspect Name: William Heupel. Ibid., Case # 178488; Case t.i.tle: General War Matter; Suspect Name: Mrs. Walter B. Henderson. I accessed these files via the online database Footnote.com, Dec. 10, 2007.

120 Holmes to Hand, June 24, 1918, in Gerald Gunther, "Learned Hand and the Origins of Modern First Amendment Doctrine: Some Fragments of History," Stanford Law Review, 27 (1975), Appendix, 757.

121 Schenck v. U.S., 249 U.S. 47, 52 (1919). Abrams v. U.S., 250 U.S. 616, 628 (1919), emphasis added. For a fascinating a.n.a.lysis of "Holmes's Transformation in Abrams," see David M. Rabban, Free Speech in Its Forgotten Years, 34654.

122 Buck v. Bell, 274 U.S. 200, 207 (1927).

123 Michigan v. Tyler, 436 U.S. 499, 509 (1977). Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 508, 592 (2004) (Justice Thomas dissenting opinion).

124 Concurring opinion in Doe v. Bolton, 410 U.S. 179, 21314 (1973). Majority opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, 404 U.S. 833, 857 (1992).

125 Jacobson v. Ma.s.sachusetts, 197 U.S. 11, 29.

EPILOGUE.

1 BOSHD 1902, 36. Michael R. Albert et al., "The Last Smallpox Epidemic in Boston and the Vaccination Controversy, 19011903," NEJM, 344 (2001), 377. John Duffy, A History of Public Health in New York City, 564. Gretchen A. Condran et al., "The Decline in Mortality in Philadelphia from 18701930: The Role of Munic.i.p.al Services," in Sickness and Health in America, 3rd ed., ed. Judith Walzer Leavitt and Ronald L. Numbers, 45266. "Seattle's worst smallpox epidemic was in 190102; 642 reported cases, four deaths." "Medicine: Smallpox Epidemic," Time, Apr. 8, 1946.

2 C.-E. A. Winslow, "The Untilled Fields of Public Health," SCI, 51 (Jan. 9, 1920), 30. On this point, see James A. Tobey, Public Health Law, 16. Franklin H. Top and Laura E. Peck, "A Small Outbreak of Smallpox in Detroit," AJPH, 33 (1943): 49098, esp. 491, 492.

3 J. P. Leake, "United States Lags in Fight Against Smallpox," Science News Letter, 29 (1936), 213. A. W. Hedrich, "Changes in the Incidence and Fatality of Smallpox in Recent Decades," PHR, 51 (Apr. 3, 1936): 36392. Robert D. Johnston, The Radical Middle Cla.s.s, 183.

4 "The Anti-Vaccinationists," Southern Medical Journal, 14 (1921), 503. Zucht v. King, 260 U.S. 174 (1922).

5 Williams quoted in "Medicine: Smallpox Epidemic."

6 Hedrich, "Changes in the Incidence and Fatality of Smallpox," 366. Judith Walzer Leavitt, " 'Be Safe. Be Sure.': New York City's Experience with Epidemic Smallpox," in Hives of Sickness: Public Health and Epidemics in New York City, ed. David Rosner (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), 95114.

7 Albert et al., "Last Smallpox Epidemic," 378. J. V. Irons et al., "Outbreak of Smallpox in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas in 1949," AJPH, 43 (1953): 2529.

8 Charles L. Jackson, "State Laws on Compulsory Immunization in the United States," Public Health Reports, 84 (1969), 78795, esp. 788, 789. Judith Sealander, The Failed Century of the Child, esp. 330, 338, 352.

9 Albert et al., "Last Smallpox Epidemic," 378. C. Henry Kempe, "The End of Routine Smallpox Vaccination in the United States," Pediatrics, 49 (1972): 48992.

10 D. A. Henderson, Smallpox: The Death of a Disease, esp. 26, 53. Erez Manela, "A Pox on Your Narrative: Writing Disease Control into Cold War History," Diplomatic History, 34 (2010): 299323.

11 Henderson, Smallpox, 14, 9092. Manela, "Pox on Your Narrative," 316.

12 Stanley Music quoted in Paul Greenough, "Intimidation, Coercion and Resistance in the Final Stages of the South Asian Smallpox Eradication Campaign," Social Science & Medicine, 41 (1995): 63536. Ibid., 643. See also Manela, "Pox on Your Narrative," esp. 31617.

13 Henderson, Smallpox, 239, 245, esp. 249. Edward A. Belongia and Allison L. Naleway, "Smallpox Vaccine: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," Clinical Medicine and Research, 1 (2003): 88.

14 Henderson, Smallpox, 26986.

15 Ibid., 29697. Jon Cohen and Martin Enserink, "Rough-and-Tumble Behind Bush's Smallpox Policy," Science, Dec. 20, 2002, 231216.

16 Ma.s.simo Calabresi, "Was Smallpox Overhyped?" Time, Jul. 26, 2004, 16. Madeline Drexler, "A Pox on America," Nation, Apr. 28, 2003, 78. "Fear of Vaccine," CQ Researcher, Jan. 13, 2006, 39. Jocelyn Kaiser, "Report Faults Smallpox Vaccination," Science, Mar. 11, 2005, 1540. Donald G. McNeil, Jr., "National Programs to Vaccinate for Smallpox Come to a Halt," NYT, June 19, 2003. Pamela Sankar et al., "Public Mistrust: The Unrecognized Risk of the CDC Smallpox Vaccination Program," American Journal of Bioethics, 3 (2003): W22W25. "U.S. Smallpox Vaccine Programme Stalls as Volunteers Balk," Lancet, May 10, 2003, 1626. Pascale M. Wortley et al., "Healthcare Workers Who Elected Not to Receive Smallpox Vaccination," American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 30 (2006): 25865.

17 Kathleen S. Swendiman, "Mandatory Vaccinations: Precedent and Current Laws," Congressional Research Service, CRS Report for Congress, Oct. 26, 2009. Sealander, Failed Century of the Child, 32325.

18 "Refusing Kids' Vaccine More Common Among Parents," USA Today, May 3, 2010. See Mead v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, U.S. Court of Federal Claims, Office of Special Masters, E-Filed: March 12, 2010, esp. 164. http://www.uscfc.uscourts.gov/sites/default/files/Campbell-Smith%20Mead%20Autism%20Decision.pdf, accessed July 8, 2010. See "Vaccine Court Finds No Link to Autism," CNN.com, Mar. 12, 2010; Donald G. McNeil, Jr., "3 Rulings Find No Link to Vaccines and Autism," NYT, Mar. 12, 2010. See also Gary L. Freed et al., "Parental Vaccine Safety Concerns in 2009," Pediatrics, 125 (2010): 65459; and Saad B. Omer et al., "Vaccine Refusal, Mandatory Immunization, and the Risks of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases," NEJM, 360 (2009): 198188.

19 Philip J. Smith et al., "Children Who Have Received No Vaccines: Who Are They and Where Do They Live?" Pediatrics, 114 (2004): 18795. For a revealing argument about contemporary antivaccination sentiment, see Dan Kahan, "Fixing the Communications Failure," Nature, 463 (2010): 29697.

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