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Physics of the Future_ How Science Will Shape Human Destiny... Part 23

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"Absolutely not," she protests. Karen says she works exclusively with creative people, where the most prized commodity is imagination, something the most advanced robots lack.

"I may be old-fashioned, but in my field, we use robots only to make copies or do clerical work," she says proudly. "I would like to see the day when robots can do something really original, like tell a joke, write a novel, or compose a symphony."

That hasn't happened yet, but it might, you think to yourself.

While she is talking, a question crosses your mind. How old is she? Since the aging process was medically slowed years ago, people can be any age. Her Web site did not say how old she was. But she does not look a day over twenty-five.

After taking her home, you begin to idly daydream. What would it be like to live with a person like her? To spend the rest of your life with her? But there is something that is bothering you. It's been nagging at you all day.

You face the wall screen and say, "Molly, please call Dr. Brown for me." You are suddenly grateful that robotic doctors do house calls any time of the day. And they never complain or bellyache. It's not part of their programming.

Dr. Brown's image instantly appears on the wall screen. "Is there something bothering you, son?" he asks in a fatherly way.

"Doc, I have to ask you a question that's been troubling me lately."

"Yes, what is that?" asks Dr. Brown.

"Doc," you say, "how long do you think I'll live?"

"You mean what is your life expectancy? Well, we don't really know. Your records say you are seventy-two years old, but biologically your organs are more like thirty years old. You were part of the first generation to be genetically reprogrammed to live longer. You chose to stop aging at around thirty. Not enough of your generation has died yet, so we have no data to work with. So we have no way of knowing how long you will live."

"Then do you think I will live forever?" you ask.

"And be immortal?" Dr. Brown frowns. "No, I don't think so. There is a big difference between someone who lives forever and someone who has a life span so long that it hasn't been measured yet."

"But if I don't age," you protest, "then how am I supposed to know when to get..." You stop yourself in midsentence. "Ah, okay...you see, I just met someone, ah, special, and, a.s.suming I want to plan a life with her, how do I adjust the stages in my life to hers? If my generation hasn't lived long enough to die," you continue, "then how am I supposed to know when to get married, have kids, and plan for retirement? You know, how do I set the milestones in my life?"

"I don't know the answer to that. You see, the human race is now a guinea pig of some sort," says Dr. Brown. "I'm sorry, John. You are in uncharted waters here."

NEXT FEW MONTHS.

The next few months are a wonderful surprise for you and Karen. You take her to the virtual reality parlor, and have great fun living out silly, imaginary lives. Like being a kid again. You enter a vacant chamber. The software of a virtual world is beamed into your contact lenses, and the scenery instantly changes. In one program, you are fleeing dinosaurs, but everywhere you run, another dinosaur pops out of the bushes. In another program, you are battling s.p.a.ce aliens or pirates trying to board your ship. In another, you decide to change species and morph into two eagles that are soaring in the air. And in another program, you are basking on a romantic South Sea island, or dancing in the moonlight with music gently floating in the air.

After a while, you and Karen want to try something new. Instead of living out imaginary lives, you decide to lead real ones. So, when you both have vacation time together, you decide to take a whirlwind tour through Europe.

You say to the wall, "Molly, Karen and I want to plan a European vacation. A real one. Please check on flights, hotels, and any specials. Then list possible shows or events that may interest us. You know our tastes." In a few minutes, Molly has prepared a detailed itinerary.

Later, when walking through the ruins of the Roman Forum, you can see the Roman Empire resurrected in your contact lenses. Pa.s.sing by the scattered columns, stones, and debris, you gaze on the might that was once Imperial Rome at the height of its glory.

And shopping is a delight, even when bargaining in the local shops in Italian. You can clearly see the translations appearing beneath the person you are talking to. And no more guidebooks and clumsy maps. Everything is in your contact lens.

At night, gazing at the night sky over Rome, you can clearly see the stars arranged into constellations in your contact lens. Glancing across the sky, you can see magnified images of the rings of Saturn, soaring comets, beautiful gas clouds, and exploding stars.

One day, Karen finally reveals a secret, her true age. It's sixty-one. Somehow, that doesn't seem very important anymore.

"So, Karen, do you feel happier now that we live so long?"

"Yes, yes!" she replies immediately. "You know, my grandmother lived in a time when women got married, had a family, and maybe squeezed in a career. But I like to feel that I've been reincarnated three times, with three careers, and never looked back. First, I was a tour guide in several countries, traveling the world. It was a wonderful life. Tourism is such a huge industry, with plenty of jobs. But later, I wanted to do something more relevant. So I became a lawyer, defending cases and people I cared about. And then, I decided to indulge my artistic side and started my Web design company. And you know something? I'm proud to say I never used a robot. No robot can be a personal tour guide, win a case in court, or produce beautiful artwork."

Time will tell, you think to yourself.

"And are you planning a fourth career?" you ask.

"Well, maybe if something better comes along." She smiles at you.

"Karen," you finally say, "if we stop aging, then how do you know when the best time is for, you know, well, getting married, having kids, and raising a family? The biological clock went out the window decades ago. So I was thinking, maybe it's time to settle down and have a family."

"You mean have children?" Karen says, a bit surprised. "That's something that I haven't considered seriously. Well, until now, that is. It all depends on if the right man comes along," she says, as she smiles mischievously at you.

Later, you and Karen discuss marriage, and what name you might choose for a kid, and also what genes you want the kid to have.

You go to the wall screen and say, "Molly, can you give me the list of the latest genes that have been approved by the government?" As you scan the list, you see the various genes for hair color, eye color, height, build, and even some personality traits that are now being offered. The list seems to grow every year. You also see the long list of hereditary diseases that can be cured. Since cystic fibrosis has run in your family for centuries, it is a relief not to have to worry about that anymore.

Scanning the list of approved genes, you feel that you are not just a future parent, but some sort of G.o.d, creating a child to order in your image.

Then Molly says, "There is a program that can a.n.a.lyze a baby's DNA and then give a reasonable approximation of its future face, body shape, and personality. Do you want to download this program and see what your child might look like in the future?"

"No," you say. "Some things should be left as a mystery."

A YEAR LATER.

Karen is now pregnant, but her doctors rea.s.sure her that there is no danger in taking a ride on the s.p.a.ce elevator, which is now open to tourists.

"You know," you admit to Karen, "as a kid, I always wanted to go into outer s.p.a.ce. You know, do the astronaut thing. But one day I thought about sitting on top of millions of gallons of volatile rocket fuel that could explode with a single spark. Then my enthusiasm for s.p.a.ce travel began to cool a bit. But the s.p.a.ce elevator is different. Clean, safe, with no mess. That's the way to go."

As you and Karen get into the elevator, you see the operator push what looks like the Up b.u.t.ton. You half expect to see the lingerie department. Instead, you feel yourself soaring into outer s.p.a.ce. You feel the slow acceleration as you rapidly rise into the air. The gauge on the elevator reads, "10 miles, 20 miles, 30 miles..."

Outside, you see the scenery changing, second by second. One moment, you are staring at fluffy clouds pa.s.sing by as you soar into the atmosphere. Then the sky changes from blue to purple to a deep black, and finally you see the stars surrounding you in all their splendor. You begin to make out the constellations as you have never seen them before, blazing away in the distance. The stars are not twinkling, as they appear from the earth, but staring brightly, as they have for billions of years.

The elevator slowly comes to a stop about 100 miles from the surface of the earth. From s.p.a.ce, you see a dazzling sight that you previously saw only in pictures.

Looking down, you suddenly see the earth in an entirely new light. You see the oceans, the continents, and the lights of megacities that shine into outer s.p.a.ce.

From s.p.a.ce, the earth appears so serene that it's hard to believe people once spilled blood fighting wars over silly borders. These nations still exist, but they seem so quaint, less relevant today, in an age when communication is instantaneous and ubiquitous.

As Karen puts her head on your shoulder, you begin to realize that you are witnessing the birth of a new planetary civilization. And your kid will be among the first citizens of this new civilization.

And then you take out an old, worn book from your back pocket, and read to her the words of someone who died more than 100 years ago. It reminds you of the challenges facing humanity before it attains a planetary civilization.

Mahatma Gandhi once wrote: The Roots of Violence: Wealth without work, Pleasure without conscience, Knowledge without character, Commerce without morality, Science without humanity, Worship without sacrifice, Politics without principles.

(The authors' names refer to the books listed in Recommended Reading.)

INTRODUCTION.

1 "In his newspapers of January 1, 1900": "In his newspapers of January 1, 1900": Rhodes, pp. 2930. Rhodes, pp. 2930.2 "It will be as common for the citizen": "It will be as common for the citizen": www.learner.org/workshops/primarysources/corporations/docs/.3 "Everything that can be invented": "Everything that can be invented": quoted in Canton, p. 247. quoted in Canton, p. 247.4 "Who the h.e.l.l wants to hear actors talk?": "Who the h.e.l.l wants to hear actors talk?": quoted in Canton, p. 247. quoted in Canton, p. 247.5 "I think there is a world market": "I think there is a world market": quoted in Canton, p. 247. quoted in Canton, p. 247.6 "It is now definitely established": "It is now definitely established": Cornish, p. 149. See also: "The Facts that Got Away," Cornish, p. 149. See also: "The Facts that Got Away," New York Times, New York Times, November 14, 2001. November 14, 2001.

1. FUTURE OF THE COMPUTER: MIND OVER MATTER.

1 "Where a calculator like the ENIAC": Popular Mechanics, "Where a calculator like the ENIAC": Popular Mechanics, quoted in Kurzweil, p. 56. See also: Andrew Hamilton, "Brains That Click," quoted in Kurzweil, p. 56. See also: Andrew Hamilton, "Brains That Click," Popular Mechanics, Popular Mechanics, March 1940, p. 258. March 1940, p. 258.2 "Technology [is] the knack": "Technology [is] the knack": Rhodes, p. 206. Rhodes, p. 206.3 "Those components will eventually include": "Those components will eventually include": Babak A. Parvie, "Augmented Reality in a Contact Lens," Babak A. Parvie, "Augmented Reality in a Contact Lens," IEEE Spectrum, IEEE Spectrum, September 2009, September 2009, www.spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/bionics/augmented-reality-in-a-contact-lens/0.4 "There's some physiological evidence": "There's some physiological evidence": Gary Stix, "Jacking into the Brain-Is the Brain the Ultimate Computer Interface?" Gary Stix, "Jacking into the Brain-Is the Brain the Ultimate Computer Interface?" Scientific American, Scientific American, November 2008, pp. 5661. November 2008, pp. 5661.5 "It's like being an astronomer": "It's like being an astronomer": Jeff Wise, "Thought Police: How Brain Scans Could Invade Your Private Life," Jeff Wise, "Thought Police: How Brain Scans Could Invade Your Private Life," Popular Mechanics, Popular Mechanics, October 15, 2007, October 15, 2007, www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/neuroscience/4226614.6 "possible to identify, from a large set of completely novel natural images": New Scientist, "possible to identify, from a large set of completely novel natural images": New Scientist, October 15, 2008, issue 2678. October 15, 2008, issue 2678.7 "Can we tap into the thoughts of others": "Can we tap into the thoughts of others": David Baltimore, "How Biology Became Information Science," in Denning, pp. 5354. David Baltimore, "How Biology Became Information Science," in Denning, pp. 5354.8 "I am told": "I am told": Ibid., p. 54. Ibid., p. 54.9 "Perhaps something like the "Perhaps something like the Star Trek Star Trek tricorder": tricorder": Bernhard Blumich, "The Incredible Shrinking Scanner: MRI-like Machine Becomes Portable," Bernhard Blumich, "The Incredible Shrinking Scanner: MRI-like Machine Becomes Portable," Scientific American, Scientific American, November 2008, p. 68. November 2008, p. 68.

2. FUTURE OF AI: RISE OF THE MACHINES.

1 "Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man": "Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man": John Markoff, John Markoff, New York Times, New York Times, July 25, 2009, p. A1, July 25, 2009, p. A1, www.nytimes.com/2009/07/26/science/26robot.html?scp=1&sq=Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man&st=cse.2 "Technologists are providing": "Technologists are providing": Ibid. Ibid.3 "just at the stage where they're robust": "just at the stage where they're robust": Kaku, p. 75. Kaku, p. 75.4 "Machines will be capable, within twenty years": "Machines will be capable, within twenty years": Crevier, p. 109. Crevier, p. 109.5 "It's as though a group of people": "It's as though a group of people": Paul W. Abrahams, "A World Without Work," in Denning and Metcalfe, p. 136. Paul W. Abrahams, "A World Without Work," in Denning and Metcalfe, p. 136.6 "Today, you can buy chess programs for $49": "Today, you can buy chess programs for $49": Richard Strozzi Heckler, "Somatics in Cybers.p.a.ce," in Denning, p. 281. Richard Strozzi Heckler, "Somatics in Cybers.p.a.ce," in Denning, p. 281.7 "To this day, AI programs": "To this day, AI programs": Sheffield et al., p. 30. Sheffield et al., p. 30.8 "100 million things, about the number a typical person knows": "100 million things, about the number a typical person knows": Kurzweil, p. 267. Kurzweil, p. 267.9 In 2006, it was estimated that there were 950,000 industrial robots: World Robotics 2007, In 2006, it was estimated that there were 950,000 industrial robots: World Robotics 2007, IFR Statistical Department (Frankfurt: International Federation of Robotics, 2007). IFR Statistical Department (Frankfurt: International Federation of Robotics, 2007).10 "Discovering how the brain works": "Discovering how the brain works": Fred Hapgood, "Reverse Engineering the Brain," Fred Hapgood, "Reverse Engineering the Brain," Technology Review, Technology Review, July 11, 2006, July 11, 2006, www.technologyreview.com/read_article.aspx?id=17111.11 He was in a semiconscious state for several weeks: He was in a semiconscious state for several weeks: John M. Harlow, M.D., "Pa.s.sage of an Iron Rod Through the Head," John M. Harlow, M.D., "Pa.s.sage of an Iron Rod Through the Head," Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 11, May 1999, pp. 28183, 11, May 1999, pp. 28183, www.neuro.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/11/2/281.12 "It is not impossible to build a human brain": "It is not impossible to build a human brain": Jonathan Fildes, "Artificial Brain '10 Years Away,'" BBC News, July 22, 2009, Jonathan Fildes, "Artificial Brain '10 Years Away,'" BBC News, July 22, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8164060.stm.13 "It's not a question of years": "It's not a question of years": Jason Palmer, "Simulated Brain Closer to Thought," BBC News, April 22, 2009, Jason Palmer, "Simulated Brain Closer to Thought," BBC News, April 22, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/sci/tech/8012496.stm.14 "This is a Hubble Telescope of the mind...it's inevitable": "This is a Hubble Telescope of the mind...it's inevitable": Douglas Fox, "IBM Reveals the Biggest Artificial Brain of All Time," Douglas Fox, "IBM Reveals the Biggest Artificial Brain of All Time," Popular Mechanics, Popular Mechanics, December18, 2009, December18, 2009, www.popularmechanics.com/technology/engineering/extreme-machines/4337190.15 "After we solve this": "After we solve this": Sally Adee, "Reverse Engineering the Brain," Sally Adee, "Reverse Engineering the Brain," IEEE Spectrum, IEEE Spectrum, June 2008, June 2008, http://spectrum.ieee.org/biomedical/ethics/reverse-engineering-the-brain/0.16 "Within thirty years": "Within thirty years": Vernor Vinge, "What Is the Singularity?" paper presented at the VISION-21 Symposium sponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center and the Ohio Aeros.p.a.ce Inst.i.tute, March 3031, 1993. A slightly changed version appeared in Vernor Vinge, "What Is the Singularity?" paper presented at the VISION-21 Symposium sponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center and the Ohio Aeros.p.a.ce Inst.i.tute, March 3031, 1993. A slightly changed version appeared in Whole Earth Review, Whole Earth Review, Winter 1993, Winter 1993, http://mindstalk.net/vinge/vinge-sing.html.17 "I'd be very surprised if anything remotely like this happened": "I'd be very surprised if anything remotely like this happened": Tom Abate, "Smarter Than Thou? Stanford Conference Ponders a Brave New World with Machines More Powerful Than Their Creators," Tom Abate, "Smarter Than Thou? Stanford Conference Ponders a Brave New World with Machines More Powerful Than Their Creators," San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco Chronicle, May 12, 2006, May 12, 2006, http://articles.sfgate.com/20060512/business/17293318_1_ray-kurzweil-machines-artificial-intelligence.18 "If you could blow the brain up": "If you could blow the brain up": Kurzweil, p. 376. Kurzweil, p. 376.19 Philosopher David Chalmers has even catalogued: Philosopher David Chalmers has even catalogued: http://consc.net/mindpapers.com.20 "life may seem pointless if we are fated": "life may seem pointless if we are fated": Sheffield, p. 38. Sheffield, p. 38.21 "One conversation centered": "One conversation centered": Kurzweil, p. 10. Kurzweil, p. 10.22 "It's not going to be an invasion": "It's not going to be an invasion": Abate, Abate, San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco Chronicle, May 12, 2006. May 12, 2006.23 "intelligent design for the IQ 140 people": "intelligent design for the IQ 140 people": Brian O'Keefe, "The Smartest (or the Nuttiest) Futurist on Earth," Brian O'Keefe, "The Smartest (or the Nuttiest) Futurist on Earth," Fortune, Fortune, May 2, 2007, May 2, 2007, http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/05/14/100008848/.24 "It's as if you took a lot of good food": "It's as if you took a lot of good food": Greg Ross, "An Interview with DouglasR. Hofstadter," Greg Ross, "An Interview with DouglasR. Hofstadter," American Scientist, American Scientist, January 2007, January 2007, www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/douglas-r-hofstadter.25 "will evolve into socially intelligent beings": "will evolve into socially intelligent beings": P. W. Singer, "Gaming the Robot Revolution," P. W. Singer, "Gaming the Robot Revolution," Slate, Slate, May 21, 2009, May 21, 2009, www.slate.com/id/2218834/.26 "When I was a kid": "When I was a kid": Rodney A. Brooks, "Making Living Systems," in John Brockman, ed., Rodney A. Brooks, "Making Living Systems," in John Brockman, ed., Science at the Edge: Conversations with the Leading Scientific Thinkers of Today Science at the Edge: Conversations with the Leading Scientific Thinkers of Today (New York: Sterling, 2008), p. 250. (New York: Sterling, 2008), p. 250.27 "My prediction is that by the year 2100": "My prediction is that by the year 2100": Rodney A. Brooks, "Flesh and Machines," in Denning, p. 63. Rodney A. Brooks, "Flesh and Machines," in Denning, p. 63.28 "At Little League games": "At Little League games": Pam Belluck, "Burst of Technology Helps Blind to See," Pam Belluck, "Burst of Technology Helps Blind to See," New York Times, New York Times, September 27, 2009, p. A1, September 27, 2009, p. A1, www.nytimes.com/2009/09/27/health/research/27eye.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq="burst of technology"&st=cse.29 "It's great. I have a feeling": "It's great. I have a feeling": BBC-TV, October 18, 2009. BBC-TV, October 18, 2009.30 "Over the next ten to twenty years...wireless Internet": "Over the next ten to twenty years...wireless Internet": Rodney A. Brooks, "The Merger of Flesh and Machines," in John Brockman, ed., Rodney A. Brooks, "The Merger of Flesh and Machines," in John Brockman, ed., The Next Fifty Years The Next Fifty Years (New York: Vintage, 2002), p. 189. (New York: Vintage, 2002), p. 189.31 "Fifty years from now...Darwinian evolution": "Fifty years from now...Darwinian evolution": Ibid., pp. 19192. Ibid., pp. 19192.32 "When I try to think of what I might gain": "When I try to think of what I might gain": Stock, p. 23. Stock, p. 23.

3. FUTURE OF MEDICINE: PERFECTION AND BEYOND.

1 "Biology is today an information science": "Biology is today an information science": David Baltimore, "How Biology Became an Information Science," in Denning, p. 43. David Baltimore, "How Biology Became an Information Science," in Denning, p. 43.2 "You have to have a strong stomach": "You have to have a strong stomach": Nicholas Wade, "Cost of Decoding a Genome Is Lowered," Nicholas Wade, "Cost of Decoding a Genome Is Lowered," New York Times, New York Times, August 10, 2009, p. D3, August 10, 2009, p. D3, www.nytimes.com/2009/08/11/science/11gene.html.3 "Embryonic stem cells represent": "Embryonic stem cells represent": Jeanne Lenzer, "Have We Entered the Stem Cell Era?" Jeanne Lenzer, "Have We Entered the Stem Cell Era?" Discover, Discover, November 2009, p. 33, November 2009, p. 33, http://discovermagazine.com/2009/nov/14-have-we-entered-the-stem-cell-era/article_view?b_start:int=1&-C=.4 "It's gorgeous": "It's gorgeous": Ibid. Ibid.5 By 2001, there were more than 500: By 2001, there were more than 500: Stock, p. 5. Stock, p. 5.6 But there have been setbacks: But there have been setbacks: Ibid., p. 36. Ibid., p. 36.7 "What we are seeing today": "What we are seeing today": Kate Kelland, "Gene Maps to Transform Scientists' Work on Cancer," Reuters, December 18, 2009. Kate Kelland, "Gene Maps to Transform Scientists' Work on Cancer," Reuters, December 18, 2009.8 "Cancer is an army of cells": "Cancer is an army of cells": David Baltimore, "How Biology Became an Information Science," in Denning, p. 54. David Baltimore, "How Biology Became an Information Science," in Denning, p. 54.9 "h.o.m.o sapiens, "h.o.m.o sapiens, the first truly free species the first truly free species": Kurzweil, p. 195.10 "Although many genes are likely to be involved in the evolution": "Although many genes are likely to be involved in the evolution": Stock, p. 108. Stock, p. 108.11 "It's as if they remember": "It's as if they remember": Jonah Lehrer, "Small, Furry...and Smart?" Jonah Lehrer, "Small, Furry...and Smart?" Nature Nature 461 (October 2009): 864. 461 (October 2009): 864.12 "The obstacles to his understanding": "The obstacles to his understanding": Ibid. Ibid.13 In fact, scientists believe that there has to be a balance: In fact, scientists believe that there has to be a balance: Jonah Lehrer, "Smart Mice," Jonah Lehrer, "Smart Mice," The Frontal Cortex, The Frontal Cortex, October 15, 2009, October 15, 2009, http://scienceblogs.com/cortex/2009/10/smart_mice.php.14 "We all know that good-looking people do well": "We all know that good-looking people do well": Sheffield et al., p. 107. Sheffield et al., p. 107.15 "There is nothing in biology yet found that indicates the inevitability of death": "There is nothing in biology yet found that indicates the inevitability of death": Kurzweil, p. 320. Kurzweil, p. 320.16 "If something like age-1 exists in humans": "If something like age-1 exists in humans": Kaku, p. 211. Kaku, p. 211.17 Finally, in 2009, the long-awaited results came in: Finally, in 2009, the long-awaited results came in: Nicholas Wade, "Tests Begin on Drugs That May Slow Aging," Nicholas Wade, "Tests Begin on Drugs That May Slow Aging," New York Times, New York Times, August 17, 2009, p. D4, August 17, 2009, p. D4, www.nytimes.com/2009/08/18/science/18aging.html?ref=caloric_restriction.18 Scientists have found that sirtuin activators: Scientists have found that sirtuin activators: Nicholas Wade, "Quest for a Long Life Gains Scientific Respect," Nicholas Wade, "Quest for a Long Life Gains Scientific Respect," New York Times, New York Times, September 29, 2009, p. D4, September 29, 2009, p. D4, www.nytimes.com/2009/09/29/science/29aging.html?ref=caloric_restriction.19 His colleague Sinclair, in fact, admits that he: His colleague Sinclair, in fact, admits that he: Nicholas Wade, "Scientists Find Clues to Aging in a Red Wine Ingredient's Role in Activating a Protein," Nicholas Wade, "Scientists Find Clues to Aging in a Red Wine Ingredient's Role in Activating a Protein," New York Times, New York Times, November 26, 2008, p. A30, November 26, 2008, p. A30, www.nytimes.com/2008/11/27/health/27aging.html?scp=6&sq=sinclair%20resveratrol&st=cse.20 "In five or six or seven years": "In five or six or seven years": Wade, "Quest for a Long Life," Wade, "Quest for a Long Life," New York Times, New York Times, September 28, 2009, p. D4, September 28, 2009, p. D4, www.nytimes.com/2009/09/29/science/29aging.html?ref=caloric_restriction.21 "Such interventions may become commonplace": "Such interventions may become commonplace": Kurzweil, p. 253. Kurzweil, p. 253.22 "Gradually, our agonizing": "Gradually, our agonizing": Stock, p. 88. Stock, p. 88.23 In 2002, with the best demographic data: In 2002, with the best demographic data: Ciara Curtin, "Fact or Fiction?: Living People Outnumber the Dead," Ciara Curtin, "Fact or Fiction?: Living People Outnumber the Dead," Scientific American, Scientific American, March 2007. March 2007.24 Every year, 79 million: Every year, 79 million: Brown, p. 5. Brown, p. 5.25 "I believe that by 2050": "I believe that by 2050": Richard Dawkins, Richard Dawkins, A Devil's Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love A Devil's Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love (New York: Houghton Mifflin Mariner, 2004), p. 113. (New York: Houghton Mifflin Mariner, 2004), p. 113.26 Even more interesting is the HAR1 region of the genome: Even more interesting is the HAR1 region of the genome: Katherine S. Pollard, "What Makes Us Human?" Katherine S. Pollard, "What Makes Us Human?" Scientific American, Scientific American, May 2009, p. 44. May 2009, p. 44.27 This cell would then be reprogrammed to revert: This cell would then be reprogrammed to revert: Nicholas Wade, "Scientists in Germany Draft Neanderthal Genome," Nicholas Wade, "Scientists in Germany Draft Neanderthal Genome," New York Times, New York Times, February 12, 2009, p. A12, February 12, 2009, p. A12, www.nytimes.com/2009/02/13/science/13neanderthal.html?scp=3&sq=neanderthal &st=cse.28 "Are you going to put them in Harvard": "Are you going to put them in Harvard": Ibid. Ibid.29 "will doubtless raise": "will doubtless raise": Dawkins, p. 114. Dawkins, p. 114.30 "A year ago, I would have said": "A year ago, I would have said": Kate Wong, "Scientists Sequence Half the Woolly Mammoth's Genome," Kate Wong, "Scientists Sequence Half the Woolly Mammoth's Genome," Scientific American, Scientific American, January 2009, p. 26, January 2009, p. 26, www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=woolly-mammoth-genome-sequenced.31 "Traditional Darwinian evolution now produces": "Traditional Darwinian evolution now produces": Stock, p. 183. Stock, p. 183.

4. NANOTECHNOLOGY: EVERYTHING FROM NOTHING?.

1 "The grandest dream of nanotechnology": "The grandest dream of nanotechnology": Carl T. Hall, "Brave New Nano-World Lies Ahead, " Carl T. Hall, "Brave New Nano-World Lies Ahead, "San Francisco Chronicle, July 19, 1999, July 19, 1999, http://articles.sfgate.com/ 19990719/news/17694442_1_atom-molecules-nanotech.2 "Eventually, the goal is not just to make computers": "Eventually, the goal is not just to make computers": Ibid. Ibid.3 "Nanotechnology has the potential": "Nanotechnology has the potential": quoted in Kurzweil, p. 226. quoted in Kurzweil, p. 226.4 The key to these nanoparticles is their size: The key to these nanoparticles is their size: James R. Heath, Mark E. Davis, and Leroy Hood, "Nanomedicine-Revolutionizing the Fight Against Cancer," James R. Heath, Mark E. Davis, and Leroy Hood, "Nanomedicine-Revolutionizing the Fight Against Cancer," Scientific American, Scientific American, February 2009, p. 44. February 2009, p. 44.5 "Because the self-a.s.sembly doesn't require": "Because the self-a.s.sembly doesn't require": Emily Singer, "Stealthy Nanoparticles Attack Cancer Cells," Emily Singer, "Stealthy Nanoparticles Attack Cancer Cells," Technology Review, Technology Review, November 4, 2009, November 4, 2009, www.technologyreview.com/business/23855/.6 "It's basically like putting": "It's basically like putting": "Special Gold Nanoparticles Show Promise for 'Cooking' Cancer Cells," "Special Gold Nanoparticles Show Promise for 'Cooking' Cancer Cells," www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/200903/acs-sgn030909.php.7 Yet another way to steer a molecular machine: Yet another way to steer a molecular machine: Thomas E. Mallouk and Ayusman Sen, "How to Build Nanotech Motors," Thomas E. Mallouk and Ayusman Sen, "How to Build Nanotech Motors," Scientific American, Scientific American, May 2009, p. 72. May 2009, p. 72.8 "Today, it takes a room filled with computers": "Today, it takes a room filled with computers": Katherine Harmon, "Could a Microchip Help to Diagnose Cancer in Minutes," Katherine Harmon, "Could a Microchip Help to Diagnose Cancer in Minutes," Scientific American Scientific American blog post, September 28, 2009, blog post, September 28, 2009, http://www.scientificamerican.com/blog/post.cfm?id=could-a-microchip-help-to-diagnose-20090928.9 The question- The question-When will Moore's law collapse?-sends shudders: Electronic News, September 18, 2007, September 18, 2007, www.edn.com/article/CA647968.10 "We see that for at least the next fifteen to twenty": Electronic News, "We see that for at least the next fifteen to twenty": Electronic News, July 13, 2004. See also Kurzweil, p. 112, and July 13, 2004. See also Kurzweil, p. 112, and www.nanotech-now.com/news.cgi?story_id=04803.11 "From the point of view of physics": "From the point of view of physics": Alexis Madrigal, "Scientist Builds World's Smallest Transistor, Gordon Moore Sighs with Relief," Alexis Madrigal, "Scientist Builds World's Smallest Transistor, Gordon Moore Sighs with Relief," Wired, Wired, www.wired.com/wiredscience/2008/04/scientists-buil/.12 "It's about the smallest": "It's about the smallest": Ibid. Ibid.13 "By 2050, we will surely have found ways to achieve": "By 2050, we will surely have found ways to achieve": Vint Cerf, "One Is Glad to Be of Service," in Denning, p. 229. Vint Cerf, "One Is Glad to Be of Service," in Denning, p. 229.14 "Think of a mobile device": "Think of a mobile device": Sharon Gaudin, "Intel Sees Future with Shape-shifting Robots, Wireless Power," Sharon Gaudin, "Intel Sees Future with Shape-shifting Robots, Wireless Power," Computerworld, Computerworld, August 22, 2008, August 22, 2008, www.computerworld.com/s/article/9113301/Intel_sees_future_with_shape_shifting_robots_wireless_power?taxonomyId=12&pageNumber=2.15 "Sometime over the next forty years": "Sometime over the next forty years": Ibid. Ibid.16 "Why not?": "Why not?": Ibid. Ibid.17 "Much like you can't make a boy and a girl fall in love": "Much like you can't make a boy and a girl fall in love": Rudy Baum, "Nanotechnology: Drexler and Smalley Make the Case for and Against 'Molecular a.s.semblers,'" Rudy Baum, "Nanotechnology: Drexler and Smalley Make the Case for and Against 'Molecular a.s.semblers,'" Chemical & Engineering New Chemical & Engineering News 81, December 1, 2003, pp. 3742, http://pubs.acs.org/cen/coverstory/8148/8148counterpoint.html.18 "If a self-a.s.sembler ever does become possible": "If a self-a.s.sembler ever does become possible": BBC/Discovery Channel, BBC/Discovery Channel, Visions of the Future, Visions of the Future, Part II, 2007. Part II, 2007.19 "Nanotechnology will thrive, much as photolithography thrives": "Nanotechnology will thrive, much as photolithography thrives": Rodney A. Brooks, "Flesh and Machines," in Denning, p. 63. Rodney A. Brooks, "Flesh and Machines," in Denning, p. 63.

5. FUTURE OF ENERGY: ENERGY FROM THE STARS.

1 the world consumes about 14 trillion watts of power: the world consumes about 14 trillion watts of power: Kurzweil, p. 242. Kurzweil, p. 242.2 U.S. oil reserves were being depleted so rapidly: U.S. oil reserves were being depleted so rapidly: www.mkinghubbert.com/speech/prediction.3 "Food and pollution are not": "Food and pollution are not": Sheffield, p. 179. Sheffield, p. 179.4 China will soon surpa.s.s the United States in wind power: China will soon surpa.s.s the United States in wind power: www.gwec.net/index.php?id=125.5 "All the geniuses here at General Motors": "All the geniuses here at General Motors": Tad Friend, "Plugged In," Tad Friend, "Plugged In," The New Yorker, The New Yorker, August 24, 2009, pp. 5059. August 24, 2009, pp. 5059.6 "You put your hand over the exhaust pipe": "You put your hand over the exhaust pipe": "GM Convinced the Future Is in Fuel Cells," CBS News, September 11, 2009, "GM Convinced the Future Is in Fuel Cells," CBS News, September 11, 2009, www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/09/11/tech/main5302610.shtml?tag=mncol;lst;6.7 The plant will occupy 200 acres: The plant will occupy 200 acres: Business Wire, Business Wire, www.businesswire.com/portal/ge/index. See also www.swampfox.ws/node/26502.8 Greenland's ice shelves shrank by twenty-four square miles: Greenland's ice shelves shrank by twenty-four square miles: Brown, p. 63. Brown, p. 63.9 Large chunks of Antarctica's ice, which have been stable: Large chunks of Antarctica's ice, which have been stable: Brown, p. 64. Brown, p. 64.10 According to scientists at the University of Colorado: According to scientists at the University of Colorado: Brown, p. 65 Brown, p. 6511 In 1900, the world consumed 150 million: In 1900, the world consumed 150 million: Brown, pp. 5657. Brown, pp. 5657.12 "Envision Pakistan, India, and China": "Envision Pakistan, India, and China": Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall, "An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security," Global Business Network, October 2003, p. 18. PDF available at Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall, "An Abrupt Climate Change Scenario and Its Implications for United States National Security," Global Business Network, October 2003, p. 18. PDF available at www.gbn.com/search.php?topnavSearch=envision+pakistan%2C+india&x=0&y=0.13 countries bound by the London Convention: countries bound by the London Convention: Cornelia Dean, "Experts Ponder the Hazards of Using Technology to Save the Planet," Cornelia Dean, "Experts Ponder the Hazards of Using Technology to Save the Planet," New York Times, New York Times, August 12, 2008, p. F4, August 12, 2008, p. F4, www.nytimes.com/2008/08/12/health/12iht-ethics.3.15212327.html?_r=1&scp =10&sq=planktos&st=cse.14 The liquefied gas will be injected: The liquefied gas will be injected: Matthew L. Wald, "Refitted to Bury Emissions, Plant Draws Attention," Matthew L. Wald, "Refitted to Bury Emissions, Plant Draws Attention," New York Times, New York Times, September 29, 2009, p. A19, September 29, 2009, p. A19, www.nytimes.com/2009/09/22/science/earth/22coal.html?ref=american_electric_power_company.15 "We view the genome as the software...There are already thousands...We think this field": "We view the genome as the software...There are already thousands...We think this field": J. Craig Venter, quoted in J. Craig Venter, quoted in Oil and the Future of Energy: Climate Repair, Hydrogen, Nuclear Fuel, Renewable and Green Sources, Energy Efficiency, Oil and the Future of Energy: Climate Repair, Hydrogen, Nuclear Fuel, Renewable and Green Sources, Energy Efficiency, editors of Scientific American (Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press, 2007), pp. 22021. From Venter's presentation "Synthetic Genomics" at the Conference on Synthetic Biology (SB2.0), Berkeley, California, May 20, 2006. Audio available at editors of Scientific American (Guilford, Conn.: Lyons Press, 2007), pp. 22021. From Venter's presentation "Synthetic Genomics" at the Conference on Synthetic Biology (SB2.0), Berkeley, California, May 20, 2006. Audio available at http://webcast.berkeley.edu/event_details.php?webcastid=15766.16 "carbon bank": "carbon bank": Freeman J. Dyson, "Can We Control the Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere?" Freeman J. Dyson, "Can We Control the Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere?" Energy Energy 2 (1977): pp. 28791. 2 (1977): pp. 28791.17 An 8-ounce gla.s.s of water is equal to: An 8-ounce gla.s.s of water is equal to: Sheffield, p. 158. Sheffield, p. 158.18 "I know what the other material is": "I know what the other material is": Ralph Lapp, quoted in "Peron's Atom," Ralph Lapp, quoted in "Peron's Atom," Time, Time, April 2, 1951, April 2, 1951, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,814503,00.html.19 "Less than that": "Less than that": Seife, p. 76. Seife, p. 76.20 "Even if the plant were flattened": "Even if the plant were flattened": W. Wayt Gibbs, "Plan B for Energy: 8 Revolutionary Energy Sources," W. Wayt Gibbs, "Plan B for Energy: 8 Revolutionary Energy Sources," Scientific American, Scientific American, September 2006; reprinted April 2, 2009, September 2006; reprinted April 2, 2009, www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=plan-b-for-energy-8-ideas.21 "A decade ago": "A decade ago": Ibid. Ibid.22 If the pellet is irregular by more than 50 nanometers: If the pellet is irregular by more than 50 nanometers: Seife, p. 211. Seife, p. 211.23 it will weigh 23,000 tons...ten times the amount of energy: it will weigh 23,000 tons...ten times the amount of energy: ITER, ITER, www.iter.org/factsfigures.24 The ITER is still just a science project: The ITER is still just a science project: Gibbs, "Plan B," Gibbs, "Plan B," Scientific American, Scientific American, September 2006. September 2006.25 "SSP offers a truly sustainable": "SSP offers a truly sustainable": Editors of Scientific American, Editors of Scientific American, Oil and the Future of Energy, Oil and the Future of Energy, p. 217. p. 217.26 Ben Bova, writing in the Ben Bova, writing in the Washington Post: Ben Bova, "To the Next President" (originally t.i.tled "An Energy Fix Written in the Stars," guest editorial, Washington Post: Ben Bova, "To the Next President" (originally t.i.tled "An Energy Fix Written in the Stars," guest editorial, Washington Post, Washington Post, October 12, 2008), October 12, 2008), www.nss.org/settlement/ssp/bova.htm.27 "It sounds like a science fiction cartoon": International Herald Tribune, "It sounds like a science fiction cartoon": International Herald Tribune, September 2, 2009, p. 14. Also see Shigeru Sato and Yuji Okada, "Mitsubishi, IHI to Join $21 Bln s.p.a.ce Solar Project," August 31, 2009; September 2, 2009, p. 14. Also see Shigeru Sato and Yuji Okada, "Mitsubishi, IHI to Join $21 Bln s.p.a.ce Solar Project," August 31, 2009; www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aJ529lsdk9HI.28 "These expenses": "These expenses": Shigeru Sato and Yuji Okada, "Mitsubishi, IHI to Join $21 Bln s.p.a.ce Solar Project," Bloomberg, August 31, 2009, Shigeru Sato and Yuji Okada, "Mitsubishi, IHI to Join $21 Bln s.p.a.ce Solar Project," Bloomberg, August 31, 2009, www.bloomberg.com/apps/ news?pid=newsarchive&sid=aJ529lsdk9HI.

6. FUTURE OF s.p.a.cE TRAVEL: TO THE STARS.

1 One possibility is the Europa Ice Clipper Mission: One possibility is the Europa Ice Clipper Mission: http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/1999/ast02feb99_1/.2 One game changer has been the discovery of ancient ice: One game changer has been the discovery of ancient ice: http://lcross.arc.nasa.gov.3 "This is an uncertain market": New York Times, "This is an uncertain market": New York Times, September 16, 2010, p. A3. September 16, 2010, p. A3.4 Physicist Freeman Dyson has narrowed down some experimental technologies: Physicist Freeman Dyson has narrowed down some experimental technologies: Dyson, pp. 8899. Dyson, pp. 8899.5 " "For transmission lines": Katherine Bourzac, "Making Carbon Nanotubes into Long Fibers," Katherine Bourzac, "Making Carbon Nanotubes into Long Fibers," Technology Review, Technology Review, November 10, 2009, November 10, 2009, www.technologyreview.com/energy/23921/.6 Initially, the task was so difficult that no one won the prize: Initially, the task was so difficult that no one won the prize: BBC-TV, November 5, 2009. BBC-TV, November 5, 2009.7 But finally, in May 2010, the j.a.pan Aeros.p.a.ce Exploration Agency: But finally, in May 2010, the j.a.pan Aeros.p.a.ce Exploration Agency: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ikaros.8 "For me, Orion...2,000 bombs": "For me, Orion...2,000 bombs": Nicholas Dawidoff, "The Civil Heretic," Nicholas Dawidoff, "The Civil Heretic," New York Times, New York Times, March 25, 2009, March 25, 2009, www.nytimes.com/2009/03/29/magazine/29Dyson-t.html?pagewanted=7&_r=1.9 "The exploration of the solar system": "The exploration of the solar system": Vint Cerf, "One Is Glad to Be of Service," in Denning, pp. 22930. Vint Cerf, "One Is Glad to Be of Service," in Denning, pp. 22930.10 In 2007 and 2009, the Air Force released position papers detailing: In 2007 and 2009, the Air Force released position papers detailing: Scott A. d.i.c.kson, "Enabling Battles.p.a.ce Persistent Surveillance: The Form, Function and Future of Smart Dust," April 2007 (Blue Horizon Paper, Center for Strategy and Technology, Air War College). Scott A. d.i.c.kson, "Enabling Battles.p.a.ce Persistent Surveillance: The Form, Function and Future of Smart Dust," April 2007 (Blue Horizon Paper, Center for Strategy and Technology, Air War College).

7. FUTURE OF WEALTH: WINNERS AND LOSERS.

1 "The great Islamic civilization went into decline when Muslim scholars": "The great Islamic civilization went into decline when Muslim scholars": Umi Hani Sharani, "Muslims Almost Totally Dependent on Others, Says Mahathir," Muslim Inst.i.tute, April 15, 2006, Umi Hani Sharani, "Muslims Almost Totally Dependent on Others, Says Mahathir," Muslim Inst.i.tute, April 15, 2006, www.musliminst.i.tute.com/article.php?id=499.2 "Heavens, no. It will be a hundred years": "Heavens, no. It will be a hundred years": William J. Holstein, "To Gauge the Internet, Listen to the Steam Engine," William J. Holstein, "To Gauge the Internet, Listen to the Steam Engine," New York Times, New York Times, August 26, 2001, August 26, 2001, http://www.nytimes.com/2001/08/26/business/26SVAL.html?scp=1&sq=%22to%20gauge%20the%20internet%22&st=cse.3 "attribute 90 percent of income growth in England and the United States": "attribute 90 percent of income growth in England and the United States": Virginia Postrel, "Avoiding Previous Blunders," Virginia Postrel, "Avoiding Previous Blunders," New York Times, New York Times, January 1, 2004, January 1, 2004, www.nytimes.com/2004/01/01/business/01scene.html.4 "A century ago, railroad companies": "A century ago, railroad companies": Ibid. Ibid.5 "In the 19th century": "In the 19th century": Thomas L. Friedman, "Green the Bailout," Thomas L. Friedman, "Green the Bailout," New York Times, New York Times, September 28, 2008, p. WK11, September 28, 2008, p. WK11, www.nytimes.com/2008/09/28/opinion/28friedman.html.6 From 1900 to 1925, the number of automobile start-up companies: From 1900 to 1925, the number of automobile start-up companies: Steve Lohr, "New Economy; Despite Its Epochal Name, the Clicks-and-Mortar Age May Be Quietly a.s.similated," Steve Lohr, "New Economy; Despite Its Epochal Name, the Clicks-and-Mortar Age May Be Quietly a.s.similated," New York Times, New York Times, October 8, 2001, October 8, 2001, www.nytimes.com/2001/10/08/business/new-economy-despite-its-epochal-name-clicks-mortar-age-may-be-quietly.html?scp=30&sq=automobile&st=nyt.7 "The early 21st century saw a boom": "The early 21st century saw a boom": Ibid. Ibid.8 "The do-it-yourself model": "The do-it-yourself model": Charles Gasparino, "Merrill Lynch to Offer Online Trading," ZDNet News, June 1, 1999, Charles Gasparino, "Merrill Lynch to Offer Online Trading," ZDNet News, June 1, 1999, www.zdnet.com/news/merrill-lynch-to-offer-online-trading/95883.9 "Rarely in history has the leader in an industry": "Rarely in history has the leader in an industry": Ibid. Ibid.10 "In practice, the vast bulk of this 'information'": "In practice, the vast bulk of this 'information'": McRae, p. 175. McRae, p. 175.11 "Today, knowledge and skills": "Today, knowledge and skills": Thurow, p. 68. Thurow, p. 68.12 "With everything else dropping out of the compet.i.tive equation": "With everything else dropping out of the compet.i.tive equation": Thurow, p. 74. Thurow, p. 74.13 "in 1991 Britain became": "in 1991 Britain became": McRae, p. 12. McRae, p. 12.14 "After correcting for general inflation": "After correcting for general inflation": Thurow, p. 67. Thurow, p. 67.15 "The prolonged migration": "The prolonged migration": James Grant, "Sometimes the Economy Needs a Setback," James Grant, "Sometimes the Economy Needs a Setback," New York Times, New York Times, September 9, 2001, September 9, 2001, www.nytimes.com/2001/09/09/opinion/sometimes-the-economy-needs-a-setback.html.16 "Success or failure depends": "Success or failure depends": Thurow, p. 72. Thurow, p. 72.17 "The old motors of growth": "The old motors of growth": McRae, pp. 1213. McRae, pp. 1213.18 "we are told by the World Bank that nearly 2.8 billion people": "we are told by the World Bank that nearly 2.8 billion people": Toffler, p. 288. Toffler, p. 288.

8. FUTURE OF HUMANITY: PLANETARY CIVILIZATION.

1 "People will inevitably start to look around them": "People will inevitably start to look around them": Kenichi Ohmae, Kenichi Ohmae, The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies (New York: Free Press, 1995), p. 45. (New York: Free Press, 1995), p. 45.2 "It is impossible to imagine the height to which may be carried": "It is impossible to imagine the height to which may be carried": Benjamin Franklin, letter to Joseph Priestley, quoted in Cornish, p. 173. Benjamin Franklin, letter to Joseph Priestley, quoted in Cornish, p. 173.3 "Science is organized knowledge. Wisdom is organized life": "Science is organized knowledge. Wisdom is organized life": http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/i/immanuel_kant_2.html.4 "The saddest aspect of society right now": "The saddest aspect of society right now": http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/topics/topic_science4.html.5 "Democracy is the worst form of government": "Democracy is the worst form of government": http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/democracy.html.6 "Democracy is a device that ensures we shall be governed": "Democracy is a device that ensures we shall be governed": http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/g/george_bernard_shaw_2.htm.7 "History is more or less bunk": "History is more or less bunk": quoted in Rhodes, p. 61. quoted in Rhodes, p. 61.

9. A DAY IN THE LIFE IN 2100.

1 "The Roots of Violence": "The Roots of Violence": http://thinkexist.com/quotation/the_roots_of_violence-wealth_without_work/191301.html.

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The Future of Capitalism: How Today's Economic Forces Shape Tomorrow's World. The Future of Capitalism: How Today's Economic Forces Shape Tomorrow's World. New York: William Morrow, 1996. New York: William Morrow, 1996.Toffler, Alvin, and Heidi Toffler. Revolutionary Wealth. Revolutionary Wealth. New York: Knopf, 2006. New York: Knopf, 2006.van der Duin, Patrick. Knowing Tomorrow? How Science Deals with the Future. Knowing Tomorrow? How Science Deals with the Future. Delft, Netherlands: Eburon, 2007. Delft, Netherlands: Eburon, 2007.Vinge, Vernor. Rainbows End. Rainbows End. New York: Tor, 2006. New York: Tor, 2006.Watson, Richard. Future Files: The 5 Trends That Will Shape the Next 50 Years. Future Files: The 5 Trends That Will Shape the Next 50 Years. London: Nicholas Brealey, 2008. London: Nicholas Brealey, 2008.Weiner, Jonathan. Long for This World: The Strange Science of Immortality. Long for This World: The Strange Science of Immortality. New York: HarperCollins, 2010. New York: HarperCollins, 2010.

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Abacus, atomic version of Abortion Abortion Abrahams, Paul Abrahams, Paul Acting profession Acting profession Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Advanced Automation for s.p.a.ce Missions report Advanced Automation for s.p.a.ce Missions report Advertising Advertising Aging. Aging. See See Longevity LongevityAIBO robot Air bags Air bags Aldrin, Buzz, Aldrin, Buzz, 6.1 6.1, 6.2 6.2Algae blooms Alien civilizations Alien civilizations Allen, Paul, Allen, Paul, 6.1 6.1, 8.1 8.1Andrews, Dana Angels and Demons Angels and Demons (Brown) (Brown) Animations, computer Animations, computer Anthrax Anthrax Antimatter, Antimatter, itr.1 itr.1, 6.1 6.1Apophis (asteroid) Armstrong, Neil Armstrong, Neil Artificial intelligence (AI). Artificial intelligence (AI). See See Robotics/AI Robotics/AIArtificial vision Artsutanov, Yuri Artsutanov, Yuri ASIMO robot, ASIMO robot, 2.1 2.1, 2.2 2.2, 2.3 2.3Asimov, Isaac, 2.1 2.1, 6.1 6.1, 8.1 8.1ASPM gene Asteroid landing Asteroid landing Atala, Anthony Atala, Anthony Atomic force microscope Atomic force microscope Augmented reality Augmented reality Augustine Commission report, Augustine Commission report, 6.1 6.1, 6.2 6.2Avatar (movie), (movie), 1.1 1.1, 2.1 2.1, 6.1 6.1, 7.1 7.1Avatars

Backscatter X-rays Back to the Future Back to the Future movies, movies, 5.1 5.1, 5.2 5.2Badylak, Stephen Baldwin, David E. Baldwin, David E. Baltimore, David, Baltimore, David, 1.1 1.1, 3.1 3.1, 3.2 3.2, 3.3 3.3Benford, Gregory Big bang research Big bang research Binnig, Gerd Binnig, Gerd Bioinformatics Bioinformatics Biotechnology. Biotechnology. See See Medicine/biotechnology Medicine/biotechnologyBirbaumer, Niels Birth control Birth control Bismarck, Otto von Bismarck, Otto von Blade Runner Blade Runner (movie) (movie) Blue Gene computer Blue Gene computer Blumich, Bernhard, Blumich, Bernhard, 1.1 1.1, 1.2 1.2Boeing Corporation Booster-rocket technologies Booster-rocket technologies Bova, Ben, Bova, Ben, 5.1 5.1, 5.2 5.2Boys from Brazil, The (movie) (movie) Brain Brainartificial body parts, adaptation to basic structure of basic structure of emotions and emotions and growing a human brain growing a human brain Internet contact lenses and Internet contact lenses and locating every neuron in locating every neuron in as neural network as neural network parallel processing in parallel processing in reverse engineering of reverse engineering of simulations of simulations of "Brain drain" to the United States "Brain drain" to the United States BrainGate device BrainGate device Brain injuries, treatment for Brain injuries, treatment for Branson, Richard Branson, Richard Brave New World Brave New World (Huxley) (Huxley) Breast cancer Breast cancer Breazeal, Cynthia Breazeal, Cynthia Brenner, Sydney Brenner, Sydney Brooks, Rodney, Brooks, Rodney, 2.1 2.1, 2.2 2.2, 4.1 4.1Brown, Dan Brown, Lester Brown, Lester Buckley, William F. Buckley, William F. Bush, George W. Bush, George W. Bussard, Robert W., Bussard, Robert W., 6.1 6.1, 6.2 6.2

Caloric restriction Cameron, James Cameron, James Campbell, E. Michael Campbell, E. Michael Campbell, Jason Campbell, Jason Cancer, Cancer, 3.1 3.1, 3.2 3.2Cancer Genome Project Cancer screening Cancer screening Cancer therapies, Cancer therapies, 1.1 1.1, 3.1 3.1, 3.2 3.2, 4.1 4.1, 9.1 9.1Canton, James Capitalism, Capitalism, 4.1 4.1. See also See also Intellectual capitalism Intellectual capitalismCarbon nanotubes, 4.1 4.1, 6.1 6.1Carbon sequestration Cars Carsdriverless electric electric maglev, maglev, 5.1 5.1, 9.1 9.1Cascio, Jamais Catoms Catoms Cave Man Principle Cave Man Principlebiotechnology and computer animations and computer animations and predicting the future and predicting the future and replicators and, replicators and, 4.1 4.1, 4.2 4.2robotics/AI and, 2.1 2.1, 2.2 2.2sports and Cerf, Vint, Cerf, Vint, 4.1 4.1, 6.1 6.1Chalmers, David Charles, Prince of Wales Charles, Prince of Wales Chemotherapy Chemotherapy Chern.o.byl nuclear accident Chern.o.byl nuclear accident Chevy Volt Chevy Volt Chinese Empire, Chinese Empire, 7.1 7.1, 7.2 7.2Church, George Churchill, Winston, Churchill, Winston, itr.1 itr.1, 8.1 8.1Cipriani, Christian Civilizations Civilizations alien civilizations alien civilizations characteristics of various Types characteristics of various Types entropy and entropy and information processing and information processing and resistance to Type I civilization resistance to Type I civilization rise and fall of great empires rise and fall of great empires rise of civilization on Earth rise of civilization on Earth science and wisdom, importance of science and wisdom, importance of transition from Type 0 to Type I, transition from Type 0 to Type I, itr.1 itr.1, 8.1 8.1, 8.2 8.2Type II civilizations, 8.1 8.1, 8.2 8.2, 8.3 8.3Type III civilizations, 8.1 8.1, 8.2 8.2waste heat and Clarke, Arthur C. Clarke, Arthur C. Clausewitz, Carl von Clausewitz, Carl von Cloning, Cloning, 3.1 3.1, 3.2 3.2Cloud computing, 1.1 1.1, 7.1 7.1Cochlear implants Code breaking Code breaking Collins, Francis Collins, Francis Comets Comets Common sense, Common sense, 2.1 2.1, 2.2 2.2, 2.3 2.3, 7.1 7.1, 7.2 7.2Computers animations created by animations created by augmented reality augmented reality bioinformatics bioinformatics brain simulations brain simulations carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotubes and cloud computing, cloud computing, 1.1 1.1, 7.1 7.1digital divide DNA computers DNA computers driverless cars driverless cars exponential growth of computer power (Moore's law), exponential growth of computer power (Moore's law), 1.1 1.1, 1.2 1.2, 1.3 1.3, 4.1 4.1fairy tale life and far future (2070) far future (2070) four stages of technology and four stages of technology and Internet gla.s.ses and contact lenses, Internet gla.s.ses and contact lenses, 1.1 1.1, 1.2 1.2medicine and midcentury (2030) midcentury (2030) mind control of mind control of molecular and atomic transistors molecular and atomic transistors nanotechnology and nanotechnology and near future (present to 2030) near future (present to 2030) optical computers optical computers parallel processing parallel processing physics of computer revolution physics of computer revolution quantum computers quantum computers quantum dot computers quantum dot computers quantum theory and, quantum theory and, 1.1 1.1, 4.1 4.1, 4.2 4.2, 4.3 4.3sc.r.a.p computers self-a.s.sembly and self-a.s.sembly and silicon chips, limitations of, silicon chips, limitations of, 1.1 1.1, 1.2 1.2, 4.1 4.1telekinesis with 3-D technology 3-D technology universal translators universal translators virtual reality virtual reality wall screens wall screens See also See also Mind reading Mind reading; Robotics/AI Robotics/AICondorcet, Marquis de Conscious robots, Conscious robots, 2.1 2.1, 2.2 2.2Constellation Program COROT satellite, COROT satellite, 6.1 6.1, 8.1 8.1Crick, Francis Criminology Criminology Crutzen, Paul Crutzen, Paul Culture in Type I civilization Culture in Type I civilization Customization of products Customization of products Cybertourism, Cybertourism, itr.1 itr.1, itr.2 itr.2CYC project

Damasio, Antonio Dating in 2100, Dating in 2100, 9.1 9.1, 9.2 9.2, 9.3 9.3, 9.4 9.4Davies, Stephen Da Vinci robotic system Da Vinci robotic system Dawkins, Richard, Dawkins, Richard, 3.1 3.1, 3.2 3.2, 3.3 3.3Dawn computer Dean, Thomas Dean, Thomas Decoherence problem Decoherence problem Deep Blue computer, Deep Blue computer, 2.1 2.1, 2.2 2.2, 2.3 2.3Delayed gratification DEMO fusion reactor DEMO fusion reactor Depression treatments Depression treatments Designer children, Designer children, 3.1 3.1, 3.2 3.2, 3.3 3.3Develo

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Physics of the Future_ How Science Will Shape Human Destiny... Part 23 summary

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