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"Well, we see at last" New New York Times, York Times, September 10, 1864. September 10, 1864.

neither Lincoln nor McClellan campaigned Waugh, Waugh, Reelecting Lincoln, Reelecting Lincoln, 317 21. 317 21.

campaigned on a theme Roger A. Fischer, Roger A. Fischer, Tippecanoe and Trinkets Too: The Material Culture of American Presidential Campaigns, 1828-1984 Tippecanoe and Trinkets Too: The Material Culture of American Presidential Campaigns, 1828-1984 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 94-96. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1988), 94-96.

"The purposes of the Almighty" AL to Eliza P. Gurney, September 4, 1864, AL to Eliza P. Gurney, September 4, 1864, CW, CW, 7:535. 7:535.

CHAPTER 26. 26. With Malice Toward None, with Charity for All. December 1864-April 1865 With Malice Toward None, with Charity for All. December 1864-April 1865 "the necessity of a military escort" Ward Hill Lamon, Ward Hill Lamon, Recollections of Abraham Lincoln, 1847-1865 Recollections of Abraham Lincoln, 1847-1865 (Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company, 1895), 265-68. (Chicago: A. C. McClurg and Company, 1895), 265-68.



"I regret" Ibid., 275.

"that a people's government" AL, "Response to a Serenade," November 10, 1864, AL, "Response to a Serenade," November 10, 1864, CW, CW, 8:100-1. 8:100-1.

Brooks had become a trusted friend Wayne C. Lemple and Justin G. Lurner, "Lincoln's 'Castine': Noah Brooks," Wayne C. Lemple and Justin G. Lurner, "Lincoln's 'Castine': Noah Brooks," Lincoln Herald Lincoln Herald 94 (Fall 1970), 113-15. Lemple wrote a number of articles for the 94 (Fall 1970), 113-15. Lemple wrote a number of articles for the Lincoln Herald Lincoln Herald from 1970 to 1972 based on his doctoral dissertation on Noah Brooks at the University of Illinois (1956). See also Michael Burlingame's introduction in from 1970 to 1972 based on his doctoral dissertation on Noah Brooks at the University of Illinois (1956). See also Michael Burlingame's introduction in Lincoln Observed: Civil War Dispatches of Noah Brooks, Lincoln Observed: Civil War Dispatches of Noah Brooks, 1-12. 1-12.

"I am a thorough Const.i.tutional Abolitionist" Goodwin, Goodwin, Team of Rivals, Team of Rivals, 676. 676.

most important appointment For a discussion of the storm over the selection of a new chief justice, see David M. Silver, For a discussion of the storm over the selection of a new chief justice, see David M. Silver, Lincoln's Supreme Court Lincoln's Supreme Court (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1956), especially chapters 15 and 16. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1956), especially chapters 15 and 16.

"as the crowning" Edward G. Bates to AL, October 13, 1864, ALPLC. Edward G. Bates to AL, October 13, 1864, ALPLC.

"remove the cloud" Francis P. Blair, Sr., to AL, October 20, 1864, ALPLC. Francis P. Blair, Sr., to AL, October 20, 1864, ALPLC.

"Happily it is now certain" Salmon P. Chase to Charles Sumner, October 19, 1864, ALPLC. Salmon P. Chase to Charles Sumner, October 19, 1864, ALPLC.

"We cannot ask a man" Silver, Silver, Lincoln's Supreme Court, Lincoln's Supreme Court, 207-8. 207-8.

"Forage liberally on the country." Marszalek, Marszalek, Sherman, Sherman, xv. xv.

"He has pa.s.sed by Macon" Strong, Strong, Diary, Diary, November 28, 1864, 522. November 28, 1864, 522.

"Much concern about Sherman" Strong, Strong, Diary, Diary, December 8, 1864, 526. December 8, 1864, 526.

"I beg to present you" William L. Sherman to AL, December 22,1864, ALPLC. William L. Sherman to AL, December 22,1864, ALPLC.

"When you were about leaving Atlanta" AL to William L. Sherman, December 26, 1864, AL to William L. Sherman, December 26, 1864, CW, CW, 7:181-82. 7:181-82.

"I feel how weak" AL to Mrs. Lydia Bixby, November 21, 1864, AL to Mrs. Lydia Bixby, November 21, 1864, CW, CW, 8:116-17. The later finding that two of Mrs. Bixby's sons were not killed does not take away from Lincoln's letter. See F. Lauriston Bullard, 8:116-17. The later finding that two of Mrs. Bixby's sons were not killed does not take away from Lincoln's letter. See F. Lauriston Bullard, Abraham Lincoln and the Widow Bixby Abraham Lincoln and the Widow Bixby (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1946). John Hay, who wrote some letters for Lincoln, claimed he wrote the letter to Mrs. Bixby. Michael Burlingame supports this claim in "New Light on the Bixby Letter," (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1946). John Hay, who wrote some letters for Lincoln, claimed he wrote the letter to Mrs. Bixby. Michael Burlingame supports this claim in "New Light on the Bixby Letter," Journal of the Abraham Lincoln a.s.sociation Journal of the Abraham Lincoln a.s.sociation 16 (1995), 59-71, but the evidence is inconclusive at best. 16 (1995), 59-71, but the evidence is inconclusive at best.

"Upon rejoining his regiment" AL, "Pardon," November 16, 1964, AL, "Pardon," November 16, 1964, CW, CW, 8:112. The name of the soldier was not identified. 8:112. The name of the soldier was not identified.

"You have too much" AL to James Madison Cutts, Jr., October 26, 1863. AL to James Madison Cutts, Jr., October 26, 1863. CW, CW, 6:538. 6:538.

amendment that would abolish slavery For a fine treatment of the story of the pa.s.sage of the Lhirteenth Amendment see Michael Vorenberg, For a fine treatment of the story of the pa.s.sage of the Lhirteenth Amendment see Michael Vorenberg, Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment Final Freedom: The Civil War, the Abolition of Slavery, and the Thirteenth Amendment (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001). (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2001).

"I wish that you could have been" Charles R. Dougla.s.s to Frederick Dougla.s.s, February 9, 1865, quoted in Vorenberg, Charles R. Dougla.s.s to Frederick Dougla.s.s, February 9, 1865, quoted in Vorenberg, Final Freedom, Final Freedom, 207-8. 207-8.

"This amendment" AL, "Response to a Serenade," February 1, 1865, AL, "Response to a Serenade," February 1, 1865, CW, CW, 8:254. 8:254.

"would accept nothing short" AL, "Annual Message to Congress," December 6, 1864, AL, "Annual Message to Congress," December 6, 1864, CW, CW, 8:151. 8:151.

"to secure peace" Jefferson Davis to Francis P. Blair, January 12, 1865, Jefferson Davis to Francis P. Blair, January 12, 1865, CW, CW, 8:275. 8:275.

"to the people" AL to Francis P. Blair, January 18, 1865, AL to Francis P. Blair, January 18, 1865, CW, CW, 8:275-76. 8:275-76.

"Well, Mr. President" Although no notes were taken at the Hampton Roads conference, partic.i.p.ants did write of the conversations, sometimes years later. Stephens rendered a full account in his Although no notes were taken at the Hampton Roads conference, partic.i.p.ants did write of the conversations, sometimes years later. Stephens rendered a full account in his Const.i.tutional View of the Late War Between the States: Its Causes, Character, Conduct, and Results Const.i.tutional View of the Late War Between the States: Its Causes, Character, Conduct, and Results (Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1870), 2:599-619. (Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1870), 2:599-619.

"would be immediately restored" Campbell's report is found in his Campbell's report is found in his Reminiscences and Doc.u.ments Relating to the Civil War During the Year 1865 Reminiscences and Doc.u.ments Relating to the Civil War During the Year 1865 (Baltimore: John Murphy and Company, 1887), 8-19. (Baltimore: John Murphy and Company, 1887), 8-19.

"ended without result" Lincoln reported to the Congress on February 10, 1865. AL, "To the House of Representatives," February 10, 1865, Lincoln reported to the Congress on February 10, 1865. AL, "To the House of Representatives," February 10, 1865, CW, CW, 8:274-85. Lincoln, who often wished to keep strategic negotiations in his own hands, in this case provided materials from the Blair mission and the Hampton Roads conference to Congress. 8:274-85. Lincoln, who often wished to keep strategic negotiations in his own hands, in this case provided materials from the Blair mission and the Hampton Roads conference to Congress.

"The President directs me" Edwin M. Stanton to Ulysses S. Grant, March 3, 1865, Edwin M. Stanton to Ulysses S. Grant, March 3, 1865, CW, CW, 8:330-31. 8:330-31.

"All honor to Abraham Lincoln" Illinois State Journal, Illinois State Journal, March 4, 1865. March 4, 1865.

"Mr. Lincoln has slowly" Chicago Tribune, Chicago Tribune, March 3, 1865. March 3, 1865.

"We shall not be surprised" Oailj Morning Chronicle, Oailj Morning Chronicle, March 4, 1865. March 4, 1865.

"in force sufficient" Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Inquirer, March 6, 1865. March 6, 1865.

"at least half the mult.i.tude" "From Our Correspondent," "From Our Correspondent," Times Times (London), March 20, 1865. (London), March 20, 1865.

Lincoln was photographed delivering a speech Gardner focused this photograph on the president just as the ceremonies were about to begin. He is seated with his hands folded. Modern technology so restores the image that we can see that Lincoln had what for him was relatively close-cropped and well-managed hair and beard. Visible on the president's right are Vice President Hamlin and Vice President-Elect Andrew Johnson. On the other side, Chief Justice Chase chats amiably with a.s.sociate Justice Noah H. Swayne. Behind the president are his two secretaries, John Hay and John G. Nicolay. Gardner focused this photograph on the president just as the ceremonies were about to begin. He is seated with his hands folded. Modern technology so restores the image that we can see that Lincoln had what for him was relatively close-cropped and well-managed hair and beard. Visible on the president's right are Vice President Hamlin and Vice President-Elect Andrew Johnson. On the other side, Chief Justice Chase chats amiably with a.s.sociate Justice Noah H. Swayne. Behind the president are his two secretaries, John Hay and John G. Nicolay.

"As soon as Mr. Lincoln came out" Michael Shiner, Michael Shiner, Diary, Diary, 1813-1865, Library of Congress, 182. 1813-1865, Library of Congress, 182.

"At this second appearing" AL, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865, AL, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865, CW, CW, 8:332. 8:332.

"one-eighth of the whole population" Ibid.

"essential to the nature" Charles Hodge, Charles Hodge, Systematic Theology Systematic Theology (New York: Charles Scribner, 1871), 1:368. Gurley would have heard Hodge's thinking on "divine attributes" in lectures. Hodge made the decision not to publish his lectures in book form until the end of his career. (New York: Charles Scribner, 1871), 1:368. Gurley would have heard Hodge's thinking on "divine attributes" in lectures. Hodge made the decision not to publish his lectures in book form until the end of his career.

response to his political and theological indicative In the collection of Phineas Gurley sermons at the Presbyterian Historical Society, one hears a consistent indicative/imperative refrain. Gurley first speaks about the indicative of the love of Christ, manifest in Christ's death on the cross. He then calls for a selfless love as the response to Christ's love. Because these eighteen sermons are undated, I could not connect them with Lincoln and the 1860s. Nevertheless, this was a consistent theme in Gurley's sermons. the collection of Phineas Gurley sermons at the Presbyterian Historical Society, one hears a consistent indicative/imperative refrain. Gurley first speaks about the indicative of the love of Christ, manifest in Christ's death on the cross. He then calls for a selfless love as the response to Christ's love. Because these eighteen sermons are undated, I could not connect them with Lincoln and the 1860s. Nevertheless, this was a consistent theme in Gurley's sermons.

"The White House looked" Through Five Administrations: Reminiscences of Colonel H. Crook, Through Five Administrations: Reminiscences of Colonel H. Crook, compiled and edited by Margarita Spalding Gerry (New York: Harper, 1907), 26. compiled and edited by Margarita Spalding Gerry (New York: Harper, 1907), 26.

"Here comes my friend Dougla.s.s." Frederick Dougla.s.s, Frederick Dougla.s.s, Life and Times of Frederick Dougla.s.s Life and Times of Frederick Dougla.s.s (Hartford, CT: Park Publishing Company, 1882), 402. (Hartford, CT: Park Publishing Company, 1882), 402.

"What is to be done" Shelby Foote, Shelby Foote, The Civil War: A Narrative The Civil War: A Narrative (New York: Random House, 1974), 3:857. (New York: Random House, 1974), 3:857.

"Of all the men" William Tec.u.mseh Sherman, William Tec.u.mseh Sherman, Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman Memoirs of General W. T. Sherman (New York: The Century Company, 1893), 327. (New York: The Century Company, 1893), 327.

"I will take care" AL to Edwin M. Stanton, April 3, 1865, AL to Edwin M. Stanton, April 3, 1865, CW, CW, 8:385. 8:385.

started up the James River For the story of Lincoln's visit to Richmond, see Nelson Lankford, For the story of Lincoln's visit to Richmond, see Nelson Lankford, Richmond Burning: The Last Days of the Confederate Capital Richmond Burning: The Last Days of the Confederate Capital (New York: Viking, 2002), 156-67. (New York: Viking, 2002), 156-67.

"Jefferson Davis should be hanged" Thomas, Thomas, Abraham Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, 512. 512.

"If I were in your place" Ibid., 166. 166.

"Let us all join" AL, "Last Public Address," April 11, 1865, AL, "Last Public Address," April 11, 1865, CW, CW, 8:402-4. 8:402-4.

"no exclusive" Ibid.

"That means n.i.g.g.e.r citizenship" Michael W. Kauffman, Michael W. Kauffman, American Brutus: John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspiracies American Brutus: John Wilkes Booth and the Lincoln Conspiracies (New York: Random House, 2004), 210. (New York: Random House, 2004), 210.

"possess feelings of hate" Thomas, Thomas, Abraham Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, 517. 517.

"We must bothhe bothhe more cheerful" more cheerful" Mary Todd Lincoln (WHH interview), September 5, 1866, Hi, 273. Mary Todd Lincoln (WHH interview), September 5, 1866, Hi, 273.

they spoke of the future Turner, Turner, Mary Todd Lincoln, Mary Todd Lincoln, 283-85. 283-85.

"I am going" Isaac N. Arnold, Isaac N. Arnold, The Life of Abraham Lincoln The Life of Abraham Lincoln (Chicago: Jansen, McClurg, and Company, 1885), 431. (Chicago: Jansen, McClurg, and Company, 1885), 431.

"The giant sufferer" Welles, Welles, Diary, Diary, April 14, 1865, 2:286. April 14, 1865, 2:286.

"Now, he belongs to the ages." Along-running debate arose over what Stanton actually said. Did he say "ages" or "angels"? To appreciate the import of this debate, see Adam Gopnik, "Angels and Ages: Lincoln's Language and It's Legacy," Along-running debate arose over what Stanton actually said. Did he say "ages" or "angels"? To appreciate the import of this debate, see Adam Gopnik, "Angels and Ages: Lincoln's Language and It's Legacy," The New Yorker, The New Yorker, May 28, 2007, 30-37. May 28, 2007, 30-37.

"those memorable words" "Our Martyred President: An Address Delivered in Rochester, New York, on 15 April 1865, "Our Martyred President: An Address Delivered in Rochester, New York, on 15 April 1865, The Frederick Dougla.s.s Papers, The Frederick Dougla.s.s Papers, ed. John W. Blasingame and John R. McKivigan (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991), 74-77. ed. John W. Blasingame and John R. McKivigan (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991), 74-77.

Selected Bibliography

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"Springfield Society Before the Civil War." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society War." Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 15: 477500. 15: 477500.Burnitt, Muriel, ed. "Two Ma.n.u.scripts of Gideon Welles." The New England Quarterly The New England Quarterly 11, no. 3 (September 1938): 576605. 11, no. 3 (September 1938): 576605.Congleton, Betty Carolyn. "George D. Prentice: Nineteenth Century Southern Editor." Register of the Kentucky Historical Society Register of the Kentucky Historical Society 65 (April 1967): 94119. 65 (April 1967): 94119.Conkling, Clinton L. "How Mr. Lincoln Received the News of His First Nomination." Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society 14 (1909): 6366. 14 (1909): 6366.Detweiler, Philip F. "The Changing Reputation of the Declaration of Independence: The First Fifty Years." 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