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which had antic.i.p.ated the new systems in all these directions. The pioneers of these new systems probably drew their suggestions both from the sacrificial creed and from the [email protected], and built their systems independently by their own rational thinking. But if the suggestions of the [email protected] were thus utilized by heretics who denied the authority of the Vedas, it was natural to expect that we should find in the Hindu camp such germs of rational thinking as might indicate an attempt to harmonize the suggestions of the [email protected] and of the sacrificial creed in such a manner as might lead to the construction of a consistent and well-worked system of thought. Our expectations are indeed fulfilled in the [email protected] philosophy, germs of which may be discovered in the [email protected]
The Germs of [email protected] in the [email protected]
It is indeed true that in the [email protected] there is a large number of texts that describe the ultimate reality as the Brahman, the infinite, knowledge, bliss, and speak of all else as mere changing forms and names. The word Brahman originally meant in the earliest Vedic literature, _mantra_, duly performed sacrifice, and also the power of sacrifice which could bring about the desired result [Footnote ref l]. In many pa.s.sages of the [email protected] this Brahman appears as the universal and supreme principle from which all others derived their powers. Such a Brahman is sought for in many pa.s.sages for personal gain or welfare. But through a gradual process of development the conception of Brahman reached a superior level in which the reality and truth of the world are tacitly ignored, and the One, the infinite, knowledge, the real is regarded as the only Truth. This type of thought gradually developed into the monistic Vedanta as explained by S'ankara. But there was another line of thought which was developing alongside of it, which regarded the world as having a reality and as being made up of water, fire, and earth. There are also pa.s.sages in S'vetas'vatara and particularly in [email protected] from which it appears that the Samkhya line of thought had considerably developed, and many of its technical terms were already in use [Footnote ref 2]. But the date of [email protected] has not yet been definitely settled, and the details
[Footnote 1: See Hillebrandt's article, "Brahman" (_E. R.E._).]
[Footnote 2: Katha III. 10, V. 7. S'veta. V. 7, 8, 12, IV. 5, I. 3. This has been dealt with in detail in my _Yoga Philosophy in relation to other Indian Systems of Thought_, in the first chapter.]
found there are also not such that we can form a distinct notion of the [email protected] thought as it developed in the [email protected] It is not improbable that at this stage of development it also gave some suggestions to Buddhism or Jainism, but the [email protected] philosophy as we now get it is a system in which are found all the results of Buddhism and Jainism in such a manner that it unites the doctrine of permanence of the [email protected] with the doctrine of momentariness of the Buddhists and the doctrine of relativism of the Jains.
[email protected] and Yoga Literature.
The main exposition of the system of [email protected] and Yoga in this section has been based on the [email protected] karika_, the [email protected] sutras_, and the _Yoga sutras_ of Patanjali with their commentaries and sub-commentaries. The [email protected] karika_ (about 200 A.D.) was written by [email protected]@[email protected] The account of [email protected] given by Caraka (78 A.D.) represents probably an earlier school and this has been treated separately. Vacaspati Mis'ra (ninth century A.D.) wrote a commentary on it known as _Tattvakaumudi_. But before him Gaudapada and Raja wrote commentaries on the [email protected] karika_ [Footnote ref 1]. Narayanatirtha wrote his _Candrika_ on Gaudapada's commentary. The [email protected] sutras_ which have been commented on by Vijnana [email protected] (called [email protected]_) of the sixteenth century seems to be a work of some unknown author after the ninth century. Aniruddha of the latter half of the fifteenth century was the first man to write a commentary on the [email protected] sutras_. Vijnana Bhiksu wrote also another elementary work on [email protected] known as [email protected]_. Another short work of late origin is _Tattvasamasa_ (probably fourteenth century). Two other works on [email protected], viz Simananda's _Samkhyatattvavivecana_ and [email protected]'a's [email protected]_ (both later than [email protected]) of real philosophical value have also been freely consulted. Patanjali's _Yoga sutra_ (not earlier than 147 B.C.) was commented on by Vaysa (400 A.D.) and Vyasa's bhasya commented on by Vacaspati Mis'ra is called _Tattvavais'aradi_, by Vijnana [email protected] _Yogavarttika_, by Bhoja in the tenth century [email protected]_, and by Nages'a (seventeenth century) _Chayavyakhya_.
[Footnote 1: I suppose that Raja's commentary on the _Karika_ was the same as _Rajavarttika_ quoted by Vacaspati. Raja's commentary on the _Karika_ has been referred to by Jayanta in his _Nyayamanjari_, p. 109. This book is probably now lost.]
Amongst the modern works to which I owe an obligation I may mention the two treatises _Mechanical, physical and chemical theories of the Ancient Hindus and the Positive Sciences of the Ancient Hindus_ by Dr B.N. Seal and my two works on Yoga _Study of Patanjali_ published by the Calcutta University, and _Yoga Philosophy in relation to other Indian Systems of Thought_ which is shortly to be published, and my _Natural Philosophy of the Ancient Hindus_, awaiting publication with the Calcutta University.
[email protected] mentions two other authoritative [email protected] works, viz. [email protected]@sya_ and _atreyatantra_. Of these the second is probably the same as Caraka's treatment of [email protected], for we know that the sage Atri is the speaker in Caraka's work and for that it was called [email protected] or atreyatantra. Nothing is known of the Matharabhasya [Footnote ref 1].
An Early School of [email protected]
It is important for the history of [email protected] philosophy that Caraka's treatment of it, which so far as I know has never been dealt with in any of the modern studies of [email protected], should be brought before the notice of the students of this philosophy.
According to Caraka there are six elements (_dhatus_), viz. the five elements such as akas'a, vayu etc. and cetana, called also [email protected] From other points of view, the categories may be said to be twenty-four only, viz. the ten senses (five cognitive and five conative), manas, the five objects of senses and the eightfold [email protected] ([email protected], mahat, [email protected] and the five elements)[Footnote ref 2]. The manas works through the senses. It is atomic and its existence is proved by the fact that in spite of the existence of the senses there cannot be any knowledge unless manas is in touch with them. There are two movements of manas as indeterminate sensing (_uha_) and conceiving (_vicara_) before definite understanding (_buddhi_) arises. Each of the five senses is the product of the combination of five elements but the auditory sense is made with a preponderance of akasa, the sense of touch with a preponderance
[Footnote 1: Readers unacquainted with [email protected] may omit the following three sections at the time of first reading.]
[Footnote 2: [email protected] is here excluded from the list. [email protected], the commentator, says that the [email protected] and [email protected] both being unmanifested, the two together have been counted as one. [email protected]@m [email protected] avyaktayam [email protected] [email protected] avyaktas'avbdenaiva [email protected]@nati._ Harinatha Vis'arada's edition of _Caraka, S'arira_, p. 4.]
of air, the visual sense with a preponderance of light, the taste with a preponderance of water and the sense of smell with a preponderance of earth. Caraka does not mention the tanmatras at all [Footnote ref 1].
The conglomeration of the sense-objects (_indriyartha_) or gross matter, the ten senses, manas, the five subtle bhutas and [email protected], mahat and [email protected] taking place through rajas make up what we call man. When the sattva is at its height this conglomeration ceases.
All karma, the fruit of karma, cognition, pleasure, pain, ignorance, life and death belongs to this conglomeration. But there is also the [email protected], for had it not been so there would be no birth, death, bondage, or salvation. If the atman were not regarded as cause, all illuminations of cognition would be without any reason. If a permanent self were not recognized, then for the work of one others would be responsible. This [email protected], called also _paramatman_, is beginningless and it has no cause beyond itself. The self is in itself without consciousness. Consciousness can only come to it through its connection with the sense organs and manas. By ignorance, will, antipathy, and work, this conglomeration of [email protected] and the other elements takes place. Knowledge, feeling, or action, cannot be produced without this combination. All positive effects are due to conglomerations of causes and not by a single cause, but all destruction comes naturally and without cause. That which is eternal is never the product of anything. Caraka identifies the avyakta part of [email protected] with [email protected] as forming one category.
The vikara or evolutionary products of [email protected] are called [email protected], whereas the avyakta part of [email protected] is regarded as the [email protected] (_avyaktamasya [email protected] [email protected]@[email protected] viduh_). This avyakta and cetana are one and the same ent.i.ty. From this unmanifested [email protected] or cetana is derived the buddhi, and from the buddhi is derived the ego ([email protected]_) and from the [email protected] the five elements and the senses are produced, and when this production is complete, we say that creation has taken place. At the time of pralaya (periodical cosmic dissolution) all the evolutes return back to [email protected], and thus become unmanifest with it, whereas at the time of a new creation from the [email protected] the unmanifest (_avyakta_), all the manifested forms--the evolutes of buddhi, [email protected],
[Footnote 1: But some sort of subtle matter, different from gross matter, is referred to as forming part of [email protected]_ which is regarded as having eight elements in it [email protected][email protected]@tadhatuki_), viz. avyakta, mahat, [email protected], and five other elements. In addition to these elements forming part of the [email protected] we hear of indriyartha, the five sense objects which have evolved out of the [email protected]]
etc.--appear [Footnote ref 1]. This cycle of births or rebirths or of dissolution and new creation acts through the influence of rajas and tamas, and so those who can get rid of these two will never again suffer this revolution in a cycle. The manas can only become active in a.s.sociation with the self, which is the real agent. This self of itself takes rebirth in all kinds of lives according to its own wish, undetermined by anyone else. It works according to its own free will and reaps the fruits of its karma. Though all the souls are pervasive, yet they can only perceive in particular bodies where they are a.s.sociated with their own specific senses. All pleasures and pains are felt by the conglomeration (_ras'i_), and not by the atman presiding over it. From the enjoyment and suffering of pleasure and pain comes desire ([email protected]@[email protected]_) consisting of wish and antipathy, and from desire again comes pleasure and pain. [email protected] means complete cessation of pleasure and pain, arising through the a.s.sociation of the self with the manas, the sense, and sense-objects. If the manas is settled steadily in the self, it is the state of yoga when there is neither pleasure nor pain. When true knowledge dawns that "all are produced by causes, are transitory, rise of themselves, but are not produced by the self and are sorrow, and do not belong to me the self," the self transcends all. This is the last renunciation when all affections and knowledge become finally extinct. There remains no indication of any positive existence of the self at this time, and the self can no longer be perceived [Footnote ref 2]. It is the state of Brahman. Those who know Brahman call this state the Brahman, which is eternal and absolutely devoid of any characteristic. This state is spoken of by the [email protected] as their goal, and also that of the Yogins. When rajas and tamas are rooted out and the karma of the past whose fruits have to be enjoyed are exhausted, and there is no new karma and new birth,
[Footnote 1: This pa.s.sage has been differently explained in a commentary previous to [email protected] as meaning that at the time of death these resolve back into the [email protected] [email protected] at the time of rebirth they become manifest again. See [email protected] on s'arira, I. 46.]
[Footnote 2: Though this state is called brahmabhuta, it is not in any sense like the Brahman of Vedanta which is of the nature