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36 Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1975) p. 284.
37 Schimmel, Triumphal Sun, p. 74.
38 Schimmel, As Through a Veil, p. 77 39 Schimmel, As Through a Veil, p. 77.
40 According to Ibn al-Arabi, "to believe in any order of reality as autonomous apart from the Absolute Reality is to fall into the cardinal sin of Islam, namely, polytheism (shirk) . . . ultimately there is no reality other than Absolute Reality. . . . [For] the world and the things in it . . . their reality is none other than His [Reality]; otherwise they would be completely independent realities, which is the same as considering them to be deities along with Allah" (Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Three Muslim Sages: Avicenna, Suhrawardi, Ibn Arabi [Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1964], pp. 106-107). Only the person mired in illusion will take the drop to be an enduring ent.i.ty that exists in its own right; Aar, in contrast, affirms that the drop owes whatever reality there is in it to G.o.d. Thus, the drop is completely dependent upon G.o.d for its existence; to view it as an independently existing ent.i.ty is to violate the central tenet of Islam (tawid) and therefore to be a questionable Muslim. Aar expresses his disdain for polytheism in this manner in several of his other works. See, for example, the Ilahinamah 12/10, quoted in Ritter, Ocean of the Soul, p. 616.
41 "[Muammad] said 'I am a human being like you' (ana basharun mithluk.u.m), to which Muslim sages over the ages have added, yes, but like a precious gem among stones (ka al-yaqutu bayna al-ajar)," the idea here being that the Prophet, who is so much closer to G.o.d than the rest of humankind, has a soul that is somehow more transparent to G.o.d's light (Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam [Boston: George Allen & Unwin, 1975], p. 88).
Universality in Islam1
In the year 1869 two great Sufis were born who, in parallel ways, played pivotal roles in the introduction of Sufism to the West. One of them was the initiator of Frithjof Schuon, the Algerian Sufi Shaykh Ahmad al-'Alawi, and the other, the initiator of Rene Guenon, the Swedish wandering dervish Shaykh 'Abd al-Hadi al-Maghrebi.
Perhaps one of the most peculiar characters in the history of Western Sufism, Abdul Hadi was born John Gustaf Agelii on May 29, 1869 in Sala, Sweden. His father, the town veterinarian, stemmed from a family of prosperous farmers, while his mother was a distant relative of the 18th century Swedish metaphysician and aristocrat Emanuel Swedenborg.2 Growing up on the family farm, Abdul Hadi soon showed a great pa.s.sion for painting, and to salvage his academic future his father sent him away to private educational inst.i.tutions, first on the island of Gotland and then in the capital of Stockholm.
It was while living in Stockholm that Abdul Hadi came to study the teachings of his kin Swedenborg, and it was most probably through him that he came to learn of Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. Influenced by the writings of Dostoyevsky and Baudelaire, he soon began to refer to himself by the Russian word for John and the French spelling of his surname, which was how John Agelii became Ivan Agueli.
By the year 1890, the young painter had moved to Paris to seek his luck as an artist. Settling in the Quartier Latin, Abdul Hadi became the student of the French Symbolist painter emile Bernard, who introduced him to the works of his friend Paul Gauguin, and also to Loge Ananta, the French branch of the Theosophical Society.3 In 1891 Abdul Hadi traveled back to Stockholm where he continued his studies in Islam.4 It was then that he began to openly display Oriental character traits. At one well-known occasion, having been invited to the elegant Cafe du Nord, he suddenly rose up from the table and seated himself on the floor, cross-legged in the fashion of a Turk. Inviting his friends to join him, they all came to settle down in a wide circle, much to the annoyance of the waiters.5 By 1892 Abdul Hadi had returned to Paris, where, as an aspiring anarchist, he took part in street battles with French police. Mixing in radical circles, he became acquainted with Marie Huot, the eccentric leader of the French Anti-Vivisection League6 and the anarchists Alexander Cohen and Felix Feneon, the latter the future art-critic and editor of La Revue Blanche.7 It was while living in Paris, sometime in 1893, that Abdul Hadi came to have a dreamvision in which he beheld the Sufi Shaykh Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi, dressed in the traditional garb of Muslims of old.8 Although the true ident.i.ty of the man was not revealed to him until much later, the vision came to play a crucial role in Abdul Hadi's attraction to Islam.
In the Spring of 1894 Abdul Hadi and Feneon, together with twenty eight other anarchists, were arrested and put on trial in what would become known as "La Process de Trente"-"The Trial of the Thirty". Although accused of being the intellectual elite of French Anarchism, Abdul Hadi and Feneon managed to defend their cause successfully and were released without charges in August of 1894. His three months of incarceration at the Mazas prison were used by Abdul Hadi to deepen his study of esoterism and to improve his mastery of Arabic and Hebrew. Thus, at his release, it was a well-prepared youth who stepped unto a boat bound for the Orient.
His one year in Egypt kindled a great love for the beauty of traditional Islam and, when returning to Paris in 1895 he enrolled at the ecole Speciale des Langues Orientales Vivantes and at the ecole Pratique des Hautes etudes, where he studied both cla.s.sical Arabic and Sanskrit.9 It was also in Paris, sometime in 1898, that the young Swede officially converted to Islam and took the name Abdul Hadi ('abd al-Hadi = "servant of the Guide").10 In 1899 he set out on a voyage to Ceylon, where he settled amongst the Muslim Malays of Colombo. The same year Abdul Hadi also made a brief journey to South India, but due to monetary constraints he was finally forced to return to France.
In the summer of 1900 while protesting with Marie Huot against a bullfight in a Parisian suburb, he drew a revolver and fired two shots at a carriage of pa.s.sing bullfighters. Wounding a Spanish toreador, an unapologetic Abdul Hadi was again put on trial, but with the backing of nearly the entire French public he was handed only a suspended sentence and a nominal fine.11 It was in the Dreyfusard circles of Paris that Abdul Hadi came to know the Italian doctor and journalist Enrico Insabato. They traveled together to Cairo, where Abdul Hadi became a student at Al-Azhar University and a confidant of the Egyptian Sufi Shaykh 'Abd al-Rahman Ilaysh al-Kabir, who in 1902 initiated him into the Shadhiliyah-'Arabiyyah Tariqah.12 In 1904, with the blessing of Shaykh Ilaysh, Abdul Hadi and Insabato founded a periodical published in Italian and Arabic under the name of Il Convito. It promoted Sufism and anti-Modernism and argued for a dialogue conducted through the Italian civilization, as it was the only one of the European powers not tainted by colonialism. But it did not take long before Italy's own ambitions in Libya were brought to light, and taking the side of the Italians, Insabato returned to Rome, leaving a aggrieved Abdul Hadi to face the mounting hostility of Muslim modernists and British officials.
By the end of 1909, still reeling from the betrayal of Insabato, Abdul Hadi received instructions from Shaykh Ilaysh to return to Europe as his muqaddam and spread Islam through the Sufi teachings of Ibn 'Arabi. Thus, after spending some time in Geneva, Switzerland, Abdul Hadi returned to Paris where, in 1910, he made the acquaintance of a young editor of La Gnose, an esoteric periodical.13 Agreeing to provide Abdul Hadi with a platform for his discourse on Islam and Sufism, Rene Guenon thus became his loyal student and confidant. Abdul Hadi then proceeded to found a secret Sufi society which he called Al-Akbariyyah.14 Presiding over its first gathering in Paris on the 22nd of June 1911,15 Abdul Hadi initiated Guenon ('Abd al-Wahid) into the Shadhiliyah-'Arabiyyah Tariqah.16 In the Summer of 1911 Abdul Hadi traveled back to Sweden where he stayed until 1913. Returning then to Paris, he became an art-critic and, though somewhat reclusive, was sometimes seen in artist circles where he made the acquaintance of van Dongen and Apollinaire. After only a few months, however, his love for the Orient lead him back to Egypt, arriving there by the end of 1913.
In order to escape the crowds of Cairo, Abdul Hadi settled in the countryside, where he suffered greatly from chronic deafness and bouts of malaria. While painting the Egyptian landscape he was constantly hara.s.sed by certain fanatical villagers who accused him of being a sorcerer. After having been robbed and badly beaten by a gang of village brutes, Abdul Hadi again took to the road and finally found refuge at the farm of a Jewish family who, despite his evident poverty, gave him a room on his word of honor. It was during this period of his life that Abdul Hadi came to paint some of his greatest works of art.17 Eventually he returned to Cairo, where his Islamic faith, Beduin clothing, and Arab friends soon made the British suspect him of harboring pro-Ottoman sympathies,18 and thus in 1916, they ordered his deportation to Spain.
Lacking the funds needed to return to Sweden, Abdul Hadi was then stranded in Barcelona. He pleaded for money from friends and family, who, however, were either unable or unwilling to come to his aid. To make matters worse, he soon found himself caught in the midst of a political uprising in which his reclusive habits made him the target of revolutionary mobs who thought him to be a foreign spy.19 Finally, Prince Eugen Bernadotte, having heard of Abdul Hadi's plight, sent the necessary 1,000 pesetas to the Swedish Consulate in Spain on the 2nd of October, 1917. But it was too late. On October 1st, 1917, Abdul Hadi wandered out in the early morning hours to paint the mist-shrouded landscape in the village of L'Hospitalet, near Barcelona. He attempted to cross a rail track, but, being almost fully deaf, he failed to hear the sound of the approaching train which thus. .h.i.t him at full speed.20 The ever wandering dervish Shaykh 'Abd al-Hadi al-Maghrebi departed from this world a mere forty eight years after he entered it.
When the news of his tragic death reached Sweden, Prince Eugen ordered that the money he had sent be given to Abdul Hadi's impoverished mother, who had given up her wealth to support her son's countless escapades. The Prince also oversaw the repatriation and preservation of Abdul Hadi's belongings, and in 1920 arranged an exhibition of some two hundred of Abdul Hadi's works from his time in Sweden, Spain, and Egypt. Winning critical acclaim, he thus came to be known as one of his country's greatest artists in addition to being one of the first Muslims to introduce Sufism to the West.
In 1981, Abdul Hadi's remains were brought back to Sweden and buried in Sala, the town of his birth. Since then, a street, a park, and a museum have been named after him and dedicated to his memory.
Translation Our intention has been to develop, in the form of a solar transfiguration of the exotic landscape, the doctrine of reality in accordance with the "Supreme Ident.i.ty".21 In spite of absolute unity, we have seen that from the human point of view, particularly or disjunctively, there are two realities: the collective and the personal. The former is acquired (imposed or adopted), historical, hereditary, temporal, and hence, so to say, Adamic. The latter is original, innate, extra-temporal, and dominical. It is perhaps more or less obscured or curtailed, but it exists nonetheless. It cannot be renounced, nor can it be destroyed; it is fated, for it is everyone's reason for being, that is to say his destiny, to which all spiritual and cosmic striving is but a returning motion.22 The first is reality as seen by ordinary men, that is to say by the perceptions of the five senses and their combinations according to mathematical laws and elementary logic. The second reality is the "sense of eternity".23 In the concrete world, one corresponds to quant.i.ty and the other to quality. The collective reality is often called Universal Will, but I prefer to refer to it as Need, and reserve the term Will to indicate, as far as possible, the personal reality. The Will and the Need could correspond to Science and Being. These terms are not only familiar to European thought since Wronski,24 but also to a prominent school of Muslim esoterism currently present in India.25 Science and Being is literally "Al-Ilmu wal-Wujud", the two primordial aspects of Divinity. It need hardly be repeated that it is the Will alone that truly exists in a positive sense, while the Need has only a relative and illusory existence. On this point, all the different religions and philosophies agree; and this is why aristocratic natures are to be found everywhere. Thus, as the Muslims say, "At-Tawhidu wahidun", which means literally, according to the commentary: "The doctrine of the Supreme Ident.i.ty is, in essence, everywhere the same", or even "The theory of the Supreme Ident.i.ty is always the same". But here I would wish to insist on a distinguishing feature of Islam, on the crucial concept of the Prophet Muhammad. The Will can attain perfection only through the Need: through having, on the one hand, a need of the celestial, and through striving, on the other hand, to respond to the legitimate need of the collective reality. Thus it is that Need is indispensable to salutary striving, as a means of developing the latent faculties of the Will. The negative inertia of the former is no less indispensable than the positive energy of the latter. The one has as great a need of receiving as the other has a need of bestowing. They are hence interdependent, the one unto the other. In those rare cases where they function as intended, it is difficult to determine which of them is the most important.
On the plane of humanist and romantic psychology, the personal reality corresponds to Don Quixotesque elements, while the collective reality corresponds to those of Sancho Panza. The immortal masterpiece of Cervantes must be considered as a confession of the impotence of Christianity(at least of the forms with which we are familiar today). Has this religion ever been both Catholic (that is to say esoteric, Oriental) and Roman (exoteric, Occidental)? It has never been able to be the one without forsaking the other. What of those Christians who have no allegiance to Rome, are they truly Christian? I do not know. When a religion declares with all seriousness that its rituals and dogmas have neither a sense of mystery nor of the inward, it makes a public profession of superst.i.tion and deserves no less than to be sent to a museum of antiquities.
Europe has made several attempts to merge Don Quixote and Sancho Panza into a single personage. They have all failed, since those few who did succeeded parted from Christianity by founding free-thinking. I shall mention only two extremes of these failed attempts, the satanic and the grotesque: The Jesuit and Tartarin de Tarascon.26 There is but one Occidental who managed to resolve this problem: Saint Rabelais.27 But since he was an initiate, he most probably knew that throughout the centuries the solution lay with the Malamatiyah. In order to ill.u.s.trate our a.n.a.lysis we can contrast the Malamati with Tartarin. The former shows his Sancho Panza while hiding his Don Quixote in his inner depth, as a kind of thought at the back of his mind which always haunts him but is never p.r.o.nounced. The hero of Daudet, on the other hand, exposes his Don Quixote in the far-off exploits of Tartarin, while his Sancho Panza, who is Tartarin in private, is dissimulated unto all except for his servant.
The personal and collective realities, the Will and Need, the exterior and interior, the unity and plurality, the One and the All, merge into a third reality which Islam alone among religions knows, recognizes, and professes. This reality is the Muhammadan or Prophetic reality. Our Prophet was not only a nabi, or a man eloquently inspired, but also a rasul, or legislating envoy. He touched the (intellectual) aristocracy by An-nubuwah, or inspired eloquence, and he prevented the total decadence of the common people and the weak by Ar-risalah, or Divine Law. A fusion of the elite and the common, the Islamic aristo-democracy, can be realized without need of violence or excessive familiarity because of the peculiarly Islamic inst.i.tution of a conventional type of humanity, which for lack of a better term I shall call the "average man", or "human normality".28 Some Anglo-Saxon philosophers do indeed speak of the "average man" or the "man of mediocrity," but I am not sufficiently familiar with their theories to hazard an opinion in this regard. Such a man is always fict.i.tious, never real. He serves as a neutral and impersonal insulator which facilitates certain perceived and expected relations by ruling out any irregular interactions between people who wish to maintain a social separation. Being everybody and n.o.body, lacking any concrete reality, always being the rule and never the exception, he serves but as a universal standard of measurement for all social, moral, and religious rights and obligations. This very formalism or this just equilibrium of interests (material, spirito-material, or religio-material) encompa.s.ses fully all such outward circ.u.mstances as may arise in the course of social and religious life, and it becomes thereby the foremost means of promoting Islam. It is thanks to him that the social norms of the Arabo-Semitic tribe-those of ideal justice, unity, co-operation, and solidarity-can spread throughout the universe.
The perfection of certain truly primitive societies has been noted by several sociologists, ethnographers, and poets. But the virtues of the "man of the wild" never pa.s.s beyond the narrow confines of the tribe itself. It remains, therefore, a lyrical ideal only. Its ant.i.theses, present-day civilized man, can hardly excel him as regards human wholeness. With the latter we have quant.i.ty, which counts for something, this is true, but their quality is far from being laudable. Formalism, the inst.i.tution of the average man, allows primitive men to attain universality without forsaking those precious characteristics which connect them to primordial and quasiparadisic Adamism.
It is precisely this "average man" who is the object of the Shari'ah, or sacred Law of Islam.29 It is very simple when there is no great outward difference between the elite and the common. The literal rule then suffices. But with the course of social progress, the complications of life and the shifting of exterior conditions, the direct application of the letter would have contradicted the spirit of the law. As the average man had different varieties, so the texts were given commentaries, and thus the understanding of the legislators progressed with the pa.s.sage of life; though the difference between text and commentary is only an appearance. This evolution is natural and logical, whatever may be said by the Orientalists of barracks or sacristies.30 Certain Shariate prescriptions may appear absurd to Europeans eyes. They have, nonetheless, their own reason for being. A universal religion must take account of all the various moral and intellectual degrees. The simplicity, weaknesses, and particularities of others do, to a certain degree, have a right to consideration. But intellectual culture has its rights and requirements as well. The average man establishes around each person a kind of neutrality, which guarantees all individualities while obliging them to work for humanity as a whole.31 History knows of no other practical form of human integrality. Experience bears irrefutable witness in favor of Islamic universality. Thanks to the Arabic formulas there is a mean of perfect understanding amongst all the human races found between the Pacific and the Atlantic. It is hardly possible to find ethnic differences greater than those that exist between, for example, a Sudanese and a Persian, a Turk and an Arab, a Chinese and an Albanian, an Indo-Aryan and a Berber. No other religion or civilization has ever managed to accomplish such a feat. One can state, therefore, that Islam is the foremost means of spiritual communication that exists. Europe can establish the international only on the material level. It is something, but it is not everything. Furthermore, it is not Christianity which achieves this feat, but Occidental positivism, not to mention freethinking.
This is why we consider the prophetic chain as concluded, sealed, since he is its apogee, with Muhammad, the Prophet of both Arabs and non-Arabs. The Prophetic Spirit is the doctrine of the "Supreme Ident.i.ty", the One-and-All in Metaphysics, Universal Man in psychology, and integral Humanity in social organization. It began with Adam and was completed by Muhammad.
The word Islam is an infinitive of the causative verb Aslama, to give, to deliver, to hand over. There is an implied ellipsis: Lillahi (to G.o.d). "Al-islamu lillahi" thus signifies: to deliver oneself to G.o.d, that is to say to follow docilely and consciously one's fate. Now, as man is a microcosm, composed of all the elements of the Universe, it follows that his fate is to be universal. He does not follow his fate when his higher faculties are dominated by inertia. Islam, as a religion, is the way of unity and totality. Its fundamental dogma is called At-Tawhid, that is to say, unity or the act of unification. As a universal religion, it admits of degrees, but each of these degrees is truly Islam in the sense that each and every aspect of Islam reveals the same principles. Its formulas are extremely simple, but the number of its forms incalculable. The more numerous the forms, the more the law is perfect. One is a Muslim when one follows one's destiny, that is to say one's raison d'etre. As each one carries his destiny within himself, it is evident that all discussions of predetermination or free-will are foolish. Islam, be it exoteric, is beyond this question. This is why the greatest scholars have never wished to express their opinion on the matter. One cannot explain to the ordinary man how G.o.d accomplishes all things, how He is everywhere present, and how we all carry Him within ourselves. All this is clear to the man "who knows his soul" (man yaraf nafsahu), that is to say himself, and who knows that all is in vain except the "sensation of eternity". The ex cathedra utterance of the mufti must be clear and comprehensible to all, even to an illiterate black man. He has no right to make any p.r.o.nouncement on any matter other than the commonplaces of practical life, and in fact never does so, since he can avoid questions which do not lie within his area of competence. It is this clear delimitation, known unto all, between Sufic and Shariate questions which allows Islam to be at once esoteric and exoteric without ever contradicting itself. This is why there is never a serious conflict between science and faith amongst those Muslims who understand their religion.
Now, the formula of At-Tawhid, or monotheism, is a Shariate commonplace. The scope that you give this formula is your own personal affair, since it depends on your Sufism. All deductions that you possibly can make from this formula will to a greater or lesser extent be good, on condition that they in no manner abolish the literal meaning; since then you would be destroying the unity of Islam, that is to say, its universality, the faculty by which it is adaptable and suitable to all mentalities, circ.u.mstances, and epochs. Formalism is indispensable; it is not a superst.i.tion, but a universal language.32 Since universality is the principle and the reason for the existence of Islam, and since, on the other hand, language is the means of communication between beings endowed with reason, it follows that exoteric formulas are as important to the religious organism as are arteries to the animal body.33 I have allowed myself to express the a.n.a.logy above in order to show that intelligence (inter+legere; Al-'Aqlu), I mean universal intelligence, resides in the heart, the center of the circulation of blood.34 Sentimentality does not belong there, since its place is in the mucus of the intestines, when, that is, it occupies the place it should in the physiological economy.
Intelligence and discernment are the two princ.i.p.al aspects of human reason. One conceives of unity, the other conceives of plurality. Sound reason possesses these two faculties developed to their utmost limits and thus can conceive of the One-and-All Being; but this Being is not the Absolute, which is beyond any intellectual operation. One has reached the outer confines, not only of science, but also of the scibile,35 when one knows that one cannot reach any further. The acknowledgement of the impossibility of knowing is the knowledge of the Infinite (Al-ajzu an al-idraki idrakun). This is the only knowledge, it is true, but one would touch upon the divulgence of secrets by affirming that it is neither a paradox nor a manner of speech, but a science that is real, fertile, and, after all, sufficient. All that is only exoteric ends inevitably in skepticism. Now, skepticism is the point of departure for the elect. Beyond the limits of the scibile, there is, however, a "scientific progress", but now the knowledge becomes negative, which makes it all the more fertile, since it comes to reveal our "poverty" (Al-faqru), that is to say our, need of Heaven. Conscious of our need, we will know how to make our pet.i.tions. I say pet.i.tions and not prayers since we must shun anything which resembles in any way whatsoever a clergy. It is not important to know how to make a pet.i.tion, since, in this case, Heaven is like nature, which always answers truthfully when one pleads well-but only then. A physical or chemical experience produces a revelation. However, if done badly, it will lead to error. Heaven always awards something good when one pet.i.tions as one must pet.i.tion. But it awards nothing, or even something bad, when one pet.i.tions in a bad manner. This is an effect of the divine mutuality, or the law of universal catadioptrics.36 Sentimental moralists, Christians, Buddhists, and others, have glorified humility. Very well, but to be humble means nothing, since we are all naught.37 They have turned humility into a virtue, a goal, while it is nothing but a means, an exercise, a training. It is nothing but a brief stop along the way, one at which one halts in accordance with one's needs on the journey. Vanity is a stupidity. Misplaced humility can be so too.38 We have previously seen39 how the Muslims' credo commences with a negation, which is then followed by an affirmation. That which I deny and that which I affirm both carry the same name, A L H; but, in the first case, it is indeterminate (36); and, in the second, it is determinate (66). I am stating that the vague is non-existent, but that the distinction is real. By considering only the shape of the letters, it represents a transformation of infinitude represented by the straight line (vertical) (A), into the indefinite, represented by the circle (H), crossed through by the angle (L). For the sake of affirming the distinction, the angle (L) is repeated twice.
The greatest part of practical esoterism concerns destiny, the ident.i.ty of the I and the non-I, and the art of giving, based on faqirism. The requirement is to follow docilely and consciously one's destiny, which is to live, to live one's whole life, which is that of all lives, that is to say, that of all beings.40 Life is not at all divisible; what makes it appear as such is its p.r.o.neness to gradation. The more the life of the "I" identifies with the life of the "non-I", the more intensely one shall live.41 The transfusion of the I into the non-I is accomplished by a more or less ritual, conscious, or voluntary gift. It will easily be understood that the art of giving is the main arcanum of the Great Work. The secret of this art lies in absolute disinterestedness, in the perfect purity of the act's spirit-that is to say, the intention-and in the complete absence of any hope of any return or repayment, even in the next world. Your act must in no way be perceived as an exchange for profit. Consequently, it is more perfect, more pure, to give to those who appear to be inferior or weak, rather than to those who appear to be equal or stronger.42 From an esoteric perspective, it is far better to give to a type of person who is distant from one's own type, than to those who are like oneself. This is why an attraction to the Antipodes, a taste for the exotic, a love for animals, or a pa.s.sion for nature, are all indicators of an esoteric disposition. The famous poet, Abu-Ala Al Moarri, while considered by some to be a heretic, a materialist, and a free-thinker, occupied in fact a highly elevated rank in the spiritual hierarchy of Muslim esoterism. To stop oneself at the level of humanitarianism is, therefore, a socio-sentimental error.43 An initial training (or taming) of animic egotism will suffice for one to be considered by others as socially flawless, since all civic virtues are nothing more or less than politics, that is to say, advantageous. It is impossible, in fact, to do good for humanity without having ulterior utilitarian motives. Charity to those who are like oneself is either a duty, an act of precaution, or an act of foresight. It will thus be difficult for it to comprise anything performed "uniquely for G.o.d". Sentimentalism gives an egotistic touch to anything done in one's own name, and transforms it into nothing other than a way of attributing grand motives to the simplest of deeds.44 The Malamatiyah always give themselves a number of bad reasons for carrying out any good deed they have been called upon to perform.
The good that one does to an animal brings us closer to G.o.d, since there egotism is taken less account of, at least in ordinary cases. As the mental displacement becomes greater, the conquest within the universal soul becomes further-reaching. When you are attached to other humans, they attach themselves to you for all kinds of practical reasons. The attachment between an animal and a human is thus of a higher order. Moreover, it is exceedingly instructive, for according to the following formula: x will stand in relation to you, as you stand in relation to your cat; by this example, one can discover the greatest secrets of destiny.45 It is true that gestures of loving-kindness towards animal are of great use from a sidereal perspective; but, in order to comprehend this usefulness, one's egotism must have been developed toward the transcendent. The man who realizes that the Great Powers shall judge him as he judges weaknesses will no longer need a spiritual guide. He is definitely on the right path, on the way to becoming himself the universal Law as an incarnation of destiny itself. He may have need of technical instruction in order to progress faster, but as he knows how to give without barter, he already has his heaven to himself. One would hardly, therefore, be in a position to label as egotistic those who cultivate loving-kindness towards animals in view of an astral goal, for example, by warding off what is called "a bad destiny"; or to reinstate, where possible, the state of primitive Adamism.46 These are people who know something, and who use their knowledge to attain a terrestrial happiness which is considered by Tradition as licit.
I cannot insist enough on the fact that the art of giving is the act of the Great Arcanum. The purest and most selfless gift is the sensation of nothingness in the practice of realization. This crystallized perception is a touchstone-the foremost one-to control Existence in the Absolute. This precious tool for investigating the beyond may appear quite simple, rustic, or even coa.r.s.e, but it is instantaneously spoiled by a single atom's weight of sentimentality. One could again say "Saint Rabelais," but one can never be too wary regarding theories that are Christian (in an ordinary sense) or Buddhist.
The reader who has been willing to follow me up to this point without weariness or irritation can easily see that humanitarian giving is but the right understanding of our material advantages and disadvantages. Everyone understands, of course, that it is useful for us to be in possession of that which is indispensable for us to live in a human way. True charity only commences with animals, which is then continued by plants, but then it requires the sciences of the initiates. These sciences will lead to Alchemy, which is the charity of man in relation to stones and metals, that is to say, in relation to inorganic nature. The height of this charity is the gift of the Self to primary numbers, for then one sustains the Universe by one's rhythmic breathing. I hereby allow myself to emphasize that Cosmic Charity presents an inverse line of progression when compared to material evolution, as it is commonly called.47 Thanks to the perfect harmony that Islam establishes between the esoteric and the exoteric, one can speak of it on different levels, which is to say that it supports proselytism even as regards esoterism, at least to some extent. Proselytism fortifies it, in the sense that it enriches it from a purely intellectual point of view. It is true that numerous branches of Islamic science were only developed after several non-Arab peoples joined Islam. Many Orientalists, having observed this phenomenon, have attributed it to a juxtaposition of the Aryan or Turanian spirit with the Arabo-Semitic mentality. This is an error.
The seeds of these sciences were to be found already in primitive Islam. Since it admits rationalism and freedom of thought, it was obliged to explain itself to newcomers, to put on a form which would suit their mentality. This development occurred by the collaboration between students and teachers. Questions provoked responses. The outward need of explaining its subconsciousnesses nourished the rational and scholastic sciences of Islam. The Arabs took nothing new from the foreigners. They did nothing but, so to say, transform some of their gold into coins, their only goal being to facilitate the connection between different peoples.
I invite students of Kabbalah48 to take note of the fact that, from a purely scientific point of view, one instructs oneself by teaching others; the inward will be enriched by the outward work; Heaven gives unto you in the same measure as you distribute amongst the creatures the little you already possess. But this one must know how to do.
Let it be said straightaway that altruism is an empty word; it should be banished from metaphysical discourse, because "another" does not exist. There is no difference between you and the others. You are the others, all other people, and all the other things. All other people and things are you. We do nothing but reflect one another. Life is unique, and individualities are nothing other than the inference of destiny shining through the crystal of creation. The ident.i.ty of the I and the non-I is the Great Truth, as the realization of this ident.i.ty is the Great Work. If, with regard to a theft, you cannot grasp that you are both the thief and the victim; that in a murder, you are both the murderer and the murdered; if you do not know to blush with shame and guilt on account of monstrous crimes, novel ones, inconceivable ones, that you would never in your entire life have dreamed of committing; if you do not feel that you are somehow responsible, if only in a small measure, for the earthquake in Turkestan or the plague in Manchuria, then you are better off not to study esoterism, for you would only be wasting your time.
It is always the criminal collectivity that demonstrates that the isolated act almost does not exist, and that it is difficult to distinguish one man from another. I do not claim that all men are the same, but I am claiming that they are "of the same". Observe, for example, the following chain of actions. Have you noticed that a general suspicion, although unjust, gives rise to the sufficient evidence of the guilt of the presumed culprit? This happens all the more quickly when he is innocent to the point of not knowing how the crime was perpetrated. If he is guilty, but intelligent, he can create around his person a negative, willful aura that diverts the collective aura which wants to overflow it. It is easy to see how the moral aura of a collective gradually ama.s.ses around certain nerve-centers in a society, which then are condensed and take on a human form, most often that of the author of a crime. But this criminal is only the hand that strikes. The true origin of the act is to be found in the collectivity. It has done nothing, to be sure, but it makes it happen, which in the end is the same. This is why there are no innocents.49 When I declare everyone to be guilty, I am not pleading for the criminal's acquittal. Even less am I calling for the chastis.e.m.e.nt of all. Esoterism has nothing to do with the code of law, which is a natural product, with all the defects, of a society's history. Man cannot exercise human justice in its totality. Divine justice will always remain an enigma to him. To seek to emulate this justice is, from our perspective, among the gravest crimes a man could commit. I permit myself to quote a number of examples. Theft and murder are crimes, at least in principle; hence, the thief and the murderer must be punished in accordance with present social conventions, but that is all. You are free to avoid them or to refuse giving them the hand of your daughter, etc., but if you say that the man is bad, that he deserves h.e.l.lfire etc., in that case you are worse indeed than he is, for you wish to seat yourself upon G.o.d's throne. You seek to pa.s.s judgment in a matter of which man has no knowledge.
Another example: you condemn prost.i.tution, and you are not wrong to do so. However, you can condemn the prost.i.tute only when she commits indecent exposure in public. But her crime is only one of reflex. On the plane of current society, the man is the interior, the cause, and the woman is the exterior, the effect. The woman sells her body because the man has sold his soul. You can apprehend the one, but the other, the true culprit, escapes altogether because he is anonymous and legion. One should restrict oneself to judging facts only. But to judge a conscience is impossible.
One final example: the scandalous acquittals of crimes of pa.s.sion. Some have wanted to see in them a sign of amorality. This is not at all the case. They are only as many declarations of incompetence by the tribunal. The scrupulous judge avoids making decisions in cases whereof G.o.d alone can know.
The universal conscience becomes increasingly fatalist. There is an old saying, "nations only have the governments they deserve". A good government cannot reign a nation of rascals; it will be obliged to be corrupt if it wishes to stay in power. Day by day, one understands more of the great truth by the mere logic of events: that man is always judged in accordance with his own laws, that is to say, the laws that he imposes on beings that belong to his vital influence. There are subtle bonds between the torturer and the victim, for they are two aspects of the same event.50 Everyone realizes that it is because of the rich that there are paupers; that it is because of the wise that there are fools; that there are vicious men because the men of virtue leave much to be desired. Several saints of Islam complained of having been given the gift of secondary sight. They have seen too many extraordinary things in the minor occurrences of everyday life. The naive ones are those who seek super-human faculties outside of the given order. When these sorcerer's apprentices do not fall into intellectual or moral deviation, it means G.o.d has been merciful to them.
The law of universal poverty (Al-faqru) is indeed an Islamic principle. Each one of us is a pauper (faqir). We are all paupers (fuqara), because we all have a need for the Creator or the creation, most often for them both. As one must give in order to receive, it follows that the greatest misfortune lies in not being able to do any good, in having lost the right to exercise charity. When one gives, one must give more modestly than the pauper who receives the alms from one's hand.
It is above all through its conception of the collective reality that Islam stands apart from other religions, civilizations, and philosophies. All enlightened ones know that the collective reality is a fiction. The enlightened Muslims know this just as well, if not better. Therefore, aiming to follow the Prophet, one does not retire into the desert, but one pretends that one takes the world seriously. A hadith states that we must work for this life as if we were to live for a thousand years, and for the next world as if we were to die tomorrow. The doctrine of ident.i.ty and unity is developed further in Islam than anywhere else. Its most precious quality of esoteroexoterism provides above all its concept of the collective reality as an indispensable means by which it can transform the personal reality into the Universal humanity or the Prophetic reality. Christianity and Buddhism reject the collective reality with horror or disdain in order to make the universal Man exist in a minute quietude. Hence, they differ from Islam in a way that is both qualitative and psychological. Islam differs quant.i.tatively from esoteric Brahmanism, as it is more vast. Brahmanism is only a local phenomenon, at least from a practical point of view, while Islam is universal. It differs from anti-doctrinal positivism on the point of formalism and metaphysics. It stands in direct opposition to German philosophy, which, through its confusion of feudalism with aristocracy, has totally distorted the idea of government. Everywhere except for Germany, responsibility is a measure of n.o.bility: the more one is n.o.ble, the more responsible, and vice-versa. According to the Shari'ah the crimes of the free or the n.o.ble are judged more severely than those of the slaves or the ignorant. Unfortunately, feudalism is everywhere turned into a system that a.s.sures impunity; but everywhere it is kept apart from n.o.bility, while in Germany feudalism is the sole condition for aristocracy. The strongest has no obligation in regards to the one whose unhappy fate has placed him in an inferior situation.
In contrast, Islam has points of comparison and contact with most forms of beliefs and social structures. It is, however, neither a religious mixture nor a novelty. The Prophet expressly stated that he had invented nothing new relating to dogmas or laws. He merely restored the primitive and ancient faith. This is why there is much resemblance between Taoism and Islam. I am not the one who dares to make such an a.s.sertion of similarity, but it has been made by celebrated authors on Islam in China. Taoism differs from Islam only by the fact that it is exclusively esoteric, while Islam is esotero-exoteric. This is why the one can promote its doctrines, while the other cannot. Islam knows both neophyteness and adeptness, while Taoism recognizes only the latter of these two forms of expansion.
Translated by Farid Nur ad-Din
1 Editor's Note: First published in La Gnose, No. 4, April, 1911. The Introduction and English translation are by Farid Nur ad-Din.
2 Erik h.e.l.lerstrom, Slakt och Havd, edited by Genealogiska Foreningen (Stockholm: Alfa Boktryckeri, 1964), no. 1, p. 18.
3 Axel Gauffin, Ivan Agueli: Manniskan, Mystikern, Mlaren (Stockholm: Sveriges Allmanna Konstforening, 1940-1941), vol. 1, p. 61.
4 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 73.
5 Ibid., vol. 1, pp. 75-76.
6 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 123.
7 Ibid., vol. 1, p. 103.
8 Ibid., vol. 2, p. 143.
9 Ibid., vol. 2, pp. 19-20.
10 Kurt Almqvist (ed.), I Tjanst hos det Enda: ur Rene Guenons Verk (Stockholm: Natur och Kultur, 1977), p. 18.
11 Gauffin, Ivan Agueli, vol. 2, p. 94.
12 Almqvist, I Tjanst hos det Enda, pp. 18-19.
13 Paul Chacornac, The Simple Life of Rene Guenon (Hillsdale, NY: Sophia Perennis, 2004), p. 34.
14 Gauffin, Ivan Agueli, vol. 2, p. 189.
15 Viveca Wessel, Ivan Agueli: Portratt av en Rymd (Stockholm: Forfattarforlaget, 1988), p. 80. In The Simple Life of Rene Guenon, p. 35, Paul Chacornac mistakenly states that the year 1429 AH, given by Guenon in his Introduction toThe Symbolism of the Cross, corresponds to the 1912 AD; whereas, as Wessel points out, 1429 AH corresponds to 1911 AD. This was also noted G. Rocca in his Foreword to ecrits pour La Gnose, (Milan: Arche, 1988), p. xix, n. 13.
16 Almqvist, I Tjanst hos det Enda, p. 18, n. 1.
17 Gauffin, Ivan Agueli, vol. 2, p. 250.
18 Ibid., vol. 2, p. 255.
19 Ibid., vol, 2, p. 287.
20 Ibid., vol. 2, p. 288.
21 Translator's Note: Abdul Hadi is referring to his previously published article "Pages Dedicated to the Sun".
22 See the Yi-King, as interpreted by Philastre (vol. 1, p.138; the 6th Koua; Song 150): "The word destiny signifies the very reason for being of things; to neglect the precise reason for being of things const.i.tutes what one calls 'contravening ones destiny'; also submission to destiny is considered a return. To contravene is not to conform with submission." (The traditional commentary of the Tsheng) "Destiny or the celestial mandate, is the true and accurate reason for being of each thing." (The commentary ent.i.tled "Primitive sense.") I further add that in Chinese, Muslims are called "Hwei-Hwei", those who return, obeyingly, to their destiny. Muslim tradition states that Allah calls unto Him all things in order that they may come, willingly or unwillingly. Nothing can ignore this call. This is why all things in general are considered to be Muslim. Those beings who go unto Him willingly are called Muslims in the true sense of the word. Those who do not go unto Him-that is to say those who do not follow their destiny but are forced, despite themselves-are the infidels.
23 See La Gnose, 2nd year, No. 2, p.65. [Translator's Note: Abdul Hadi is referring to his article "Pages Dedicated to the Sun."]
24 According to Warrain, La Synthese concretet, p. 169.
25 Translator's Note: Abdul Hadi is most likely referring to the Akbariyah Tariqah, which he may have encountered on his journey into South India in 1899. See G. Rocca's Foreword to ecrits pour La Gnose, p. xxiii.
26 Editor's Note: Tartarin is a character from the 1872 novel of the same name by Alphonse Daudet. It tells the burlesque adventures of Tartarin, a local hero of the town of Tarascon in southern France, whose imaginary heroism and bravery as a hunter lead him to travel to Algiers in search of lions. The word tartarinade has been forged in French to refer to burlesque boastfulness. The attribution of "satanism" to the Jesuit is no doubt to be taken as a "shocking" hyperbole, in conformity with aspects of the malamatiyyah spirit extolled by Agueli. It may allude to the increased worldliness of too many representatives of the Society of Jesus in Western history, i.e. a "satanic" inversion of Jesuit ideals.
27 Translator's Note: Abdul Hadi was a keen reader of the bawdy French Renaissance writer Francois Rabelais, and at one point attempted to translate his works into Arabic. See Gauffin, Ivan Agueli, vol. 2, p.119. [Editor's Note: Agueli's expression "Saint Rabelais" can be taken as a profound allusion in the form of a joke.]
28 Translator's Note: This sentence was quoted by Frithjof Schuon in his Sufism: Veil and Quintessence(Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, 2006), p. 88, n. 26. [Editor's Note: It bears adding that Schuon's quoting of Abdul Hadi does not amount to an endors.e.m.e.nt of Abdul Hadi's entire perspective or all of the ideas presented by the Swedish Sufi. Abdul Hadi's references to Buddhists in a latter part of this article is, among other examples, a clear indication of this, when compared with Schuon's profound recognition of the spiritual truths of Buddhism.]
29 Translator's Note: This sentence is quoted on two occasions by Schuon, once in The Transcendent Unity ofReligions (Wheaton, IL: Quest Books, 1984), p. 157, and once in Sufism: Veil and Quintessence, p. 88.
30 Translator's Note: Abdul Hadi harbored a great dislike of Western Orientalists. He was one of the first to comment upon their misapprehension of Ibn 'Arabi, Islam, and Sufism, stating, for example, in 1917: "Our Orientalists do not know Muhyiddin's true place in Sufism, nor Sufism's place in Islam" (quoted in Gauffin, Ivan Agueli, vol. 2, p. 282).
31 Translator's Note: These sentences were quoted by Frithjof Schuon in his Sufism: Veil and Quintessence, p. 88, n. 26.
32 Translator's Note: Abdul Hadi's fascination with Islam was its very universality, and its ability as a spiritual language to form bonds between different nations and peoples. Indeed the concept of a universal language was what he had been seeking from his earliest youth. In a letter from the Mazas Prison in 1894, the young seeker wrote the following line to a friend: "You, on your part seek a religion. I, a language" (Gauffin, Ivan Agueli, vol. 1, p. 151).
33 Translator's Note: Frithjof Schuon quotes this and parts of the paragraph above and below in his TheTranscendent Unity, pp. 157-158, n. 1.
34 Translator's Note: Rene Guenon would be inspired by this last sentence in the fourth chapter of his Man and his Becoming According to the Vedanta (London: Luzac & Co, 1945), p. 39.
35 Editor's Note: Literally "that which can be known", the "knowable."
36 Translator's Note: An optical system that involves both the reflecting and refracting of light, in order to reduce aberration. Life is ordered in accordance with lex talionis, according to a hadith.
37 Editor's Note: In typically "provocative" fashion, Agueli clearly points to the limits of individualistic and sentimental "humility," while alluding to the real "metaphysical" humility based on the consciousness of our "naught-iness."
38 Translator's Note: Although a great admirer of the arts and cultures of China and j.a.pan, Abdul Hadi had a problematic relationship with the Buddhism he encountered on Ceylon. Having originally intended to travel to Tibet and visit a Buddhist monastery, it was during his stay in Ceylon in 1899 that he was drawn into the rivalry between the Buddhist Singhalese majority and the Muslim and Hindu minorities. As a Muslim, he was often hara.s.sed by his Buddhist neighbors, whose wild dog on numerous occasions broke into his home, defiling his sacred texts and attacking his favorite cat Mabruka (see note 45 below). Although Rene Guenon's early antipathy towards Buddhism was mostly rooted in his Hindu sympathies, his initial uncompromising stance may also have been influenced by Abdul Hadi's biases.
39 La Gnose, 2nd Year, No. 2, p.64, and No.3 p.111. [Translator's Note: "Pages Dedicated to the Sun".]
40 Here I am not addressing the Ibsenian concept of "living one's life". Those who do not dare, who do not restrain their pleasures, are all too unprepared to be addressed with an esoteric concept. Ibsen, Tolstoy, Nietzsche etc. are very respectable as individuals, I do not dispute that, but they are of no traditional value whatsoever. They are moralists with a local influence and hence they fail to gain our interest, as they are like small provincial prophets.
41 Translator's Note: This is quoted by Ananda K.Coomaraswamy in his The Living Thoughts of Gotama the Buddha(London: Ca.s.sell, 1948), p. 36.