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Nicholls, "Swarm Troopers"; Specter, "The Mosquito Solution"; Andrew Pollack, "Concerns Are Raised About Genetically Engineered Mosquitoes," New York Times, October 31, 2011.
611 spread their adaptation to the rest of the mosquito population
Nicholls, "Swarm Troopers"; Specter, "The Mosquito Solution."
612 "may have profound impacts on the ecology of certain infectious diseases"
Tim Sandle, "Link between Dengue Fever and Climate Change in the US," Digital Journal, July 7, 2012, http://digitaljournal.com/print/article/328094.
613 Dengue, which now afflicts up to 100 million people each year
World Health Organization, Dengue and Severe Dengue Fact Sheet, January 2012, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs117/en/.
614 causes thousands of fatalities
Yenni Kwok, "Across Asia, Dengue Fever Cases Reach Record Highs," Time, September 24, 2010.
615 "breakbone fever"
Gardiner Harris, "As Dengue Fever Sweeps India, a Slow Response Stirs Experts' Fears," New York Times, November 6, 2012.
616 the extreme joint pain that is one of its worst symptoms
Margie Mason, "Dengue Fever Outbreak Hits Parts of Asia," a.s.sociated Press, October 26, 2007.
617 Simultaneous outbreaks emerged in Asia, the Americas, and Africa
Suzanne Moore Shepherd, "Dengue," Medscape Reference, http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215840-overview.
618 the disease was largely contained until World War II
619 inadvertently spread by people during and after the war
Ibid.; Thomas Fuller, "The War on Dengue Fever," New York Times, November 3, 2008.
620 In 2012, there were an estimated 37 million cases in India alone
Harris, "As Dengue Fever Sweeps India, a Slow Response Stirs Experts' Fears."
621 dengue's range was still limited to tropical and subtropical regions
Jennifer Kyle and Eva Harris, "Global Spread and Persistence of Dengue," Annual Review of Microbiology 62 (2008): 7192.
622 dengue is likely to spread throughout the Southern United States
Sandle, "Link between Dengue Fever and Climate Change in the US."
623 including HIV/AIDS
Jim Robbins, "The Ecology of Disease," New York Times, July 15, 2012. The expansion of livestock farming into areas where wild animals are in close proximity has been implicated in the spreading of diseases from wildlife to domesticated animals and from there to people. The bird flu, for example, evolves in domesticated animals when it spreads from wild animals. HIV/AIDS spread to humans ninety years ago when African hunters killed chimpanzees and sold the meat for human consumption. The extremely deadly Ebola virus, first identified in the border regions of western South Sudan and northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1976, originated in chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope, and fruit bats.
624 brought into close proximity with livestock
625 60 percent of the new infectious diseases
Sonia Shah, "The Spread of New Diseases: The Climate Connection," Yale Environment 360, October 15, 2009.
626 that outnumber the cells of our bodies
Robert Stein, "Finally, a Map of All the Microbes on Your Body," NPR, June 13, 2012, http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/06/13/154913334/finally-a-map-of-all-the-microbes-on-your-body.