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The Facebook Effect Part 13

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I spoke to many people who have interacted with or closely observed Facebook over its short history. In addition to some who prefer to remain unnamed, I interviewed Jonathan Abrams, Marko Ahtissari, Saeed Amidi, Marc Andreessen, Tim Armstrong, Samir Arora, Kevin Barenblat, Hank Barry, Tom Bedecarre, Gina Bianchini, Tricia Black, Rene Bonvanie, Jeremy Burton, Michele Clarke, Jared Cohen, Ron Conway, John Clippinger, Tom Crampton, Sebastian de Halleux, Soumitra Dutta, Nick Earle, Dani Essindi, Rahim Fazal, Lukasz Gadowski, Bill Gates, Seth Goldstein, Susan Gordon, Don Graham, Robert Hertzberg, Doug Hirsch, Reid Hoffman, Ken Howery, Joshua Iverson, Karl Jacob, Rebecca Jacoby, Bruce Jaffe, Josh James, Jeff Jarvis, Suzanne McGee, Mike Lazerow, Tara Lemmey, Sam Lessin, Max Levchin, t.i.tus Levy, Charlene Li, Caroline Little, Chris Ma, Olivia Ma, Marissa Mayer, Oscar Morales, Yuri Milner, Rick Murray, Mairtini niDhomhnaill, Ray Ozzie, Philipp Pieper, Mark Pincus, Shervin Pishevar, Jeff Pulver, Scott Rafer, J. P. Rangaswami, Andrew Rasiej, Robin Reed, Gerry Rosberg, John Rosenthal, Marc Rotenberg, Geoff Sands, Marc Schiller, David Schlesinger, Clara Shih, Anu Shukla, Megan Smith, Justin Smith, Gary Spangler, Stan Stalnaker, Daniel Stauffacher, Seth Sternberg, Nick Summers, David Sze, Don Tapscott, Rodrigo Teijeiro, Owen Van Natta, Erik Wachtmeister, Duncan Watts, Bill Weaver, Andrew Weinreich, Maurice Werdegar, John Winsor, Michael Wolf, and Robert Wright.

My sincere thanks to them all. I've tried to get it right.

Notes.

Prologue: The Facebook Effect Page 1 Then abruptly in late December the guerrillas announced: Then abruptly in late December the guerrillas announced: Ian James, "Venezuelan Mission Heads to Colombia," Ian James, "Venezuelan Mission Heads to Colombia," Boston Globe, Boston Globe, December 29, 2007, December 29, 2007, http://www.boston.com/news/world/latinamerica/articles/2007/12/29/venezuelan_mission_heads_to_colombia/ (accessed November 15, 2009). (accessed November 15, 2009).5 Had she been personally injured by FARC: Had she been personally injured by FARC: Juliana Rincon Parra, "Colombia: United in a March Against the FARC," Juliana Rincon Parra, "Colombia: United in a March Against the FARC," Global Voices Online, Global Voices Online, February 5, 2008, February 5, 2008, http://globalvoicesonline.org/2008/02/05/colombia-the-world-united-in-a-mult.i.tudinary-march/ (accessed November 15, 2009). (accessed November 15, 2009).8 In mid-2008 a Facebook group organized a huge water fight: In mid-2008 a Facebook group organized a huge water fight: Katie Franklin, "Facebook Water Fight Ruins Prized Garden," Katie Franklin, "Facebook Water Fight Ruins Prized Garden," Daily Telegraph, Daily Telegraph, May 7, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/1935926/Facebook-water-fight-ruins-prized-garden-in-Leeds.html (accessed November 15, 2009). May 7, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/1935926/Facebook-water-fight-ruins-prized-garden-in-Leeds.html (accessed November 15, 2009).9 They heard about the pillow fight on Facebook: They heard about the pillow fight on Facebook: Angela Cunningham, "Facebook Phenomenon Hits Grand Rapids, Literally!," WZZM-13, September 28, 2008, http://www.wzzm13.com/news/news_story.aspx?storyid=99194&catid=14 (accessed November 15, 2009). Angela Cunningham, "Facebook Phenomenon Hits Grand Rapids, Literally!," WZZM-13, September 28, 2008, http://www.wzzm13.com/news/news_story.aspx?storyid=99194&catid=14 (accessed November 15, 2009).14 The average Facebook user has: The average Facebook user has: email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010). email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010).16 Now users around the world: Now users around the world: email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010). email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010).16 About 108 million Americans are active on Face About 108 million Americans are active on Face book: book: Justin Smith, Justin Smith, The Facebook Global Monitor: Tracking Facebook in Global Markets The Facebook Global Monitor: Tracking Facebook in Global Markets (Palo Alto, CA: Inside Network, February 2010). (Palo Alto, CA: Inside Network, February 2010).

1. The Beginning Page 21 From his early years Zuckerberg had: From his early years Zuckerberg had: Sarah Lacy, Sarah Lacy, Once You're Lucky, Twice You're Good: The Rebirth of Silicon Valley and the Rise of Web 2.0 Once You're Lucky, Twice You're Good: The Rebirth of Silicon Valley and the Rise of Web 2.0 (New York: Gotham Books, 2008), 141. (New York: Gotham Books, 2008), 141.23 the the Harvard Crimson Harvard Crimson later called it "guerrilla computing": later called it "guerrilla computing": "M*A*S*H-Online 'Facemash' Site, While Mildly Amusing, Catered to the Worst Side of Harvard Students," "M*A*S*H-Online 'Facemash' Site, While Mildly Amusing, Catered to the Worst Side of Harvard Students," Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson, November 6, 2003, November 6, 2003, http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2003/11/6/mash-for-the-most-monastic-undergraduates/ (accessed November 15, 2009). (accessed November 15, 2009).24 The The Crimson Crimson somewhat eloquently opined: somewhat eloquently opined: Ibid. Ibid.24 "We Harvard students could indulge our fondness": "We Harvard students could indulge our fondness": Ibid. Ibid.24 By the time that happened, around 10:30 By the time that happened, around 10:30 P.M. P.M.: Bari Schwartz, "Hot or Not? Website Briefly Judges Looks," Bari Schwartz, "Hot or Not? Website Briefly Judges Looks," Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson, November 4, 2003. November 4, 2003.25 Zuckerberg was accused of violations: Zuckerberg was accused of violations: Katharine Kaplan, "Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board," Katharine Kaplan, "Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board," Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson, November 19, 2003. November 19, 2003.28 In a December 11 editorial t.i.tled: In a December 11 editorial t.i.tled: "Put Online a Happy Face: Electronic Facebook for the Entire College Should Be Both Helpful and Entertaining for All," "Put Online a Happy Face: Electronic Facebook for the Entire College Should Be Both Helpful and Entertaining for All," Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson, December 11, 2003. December 11, 2003.28 "Much of the trouble surrounding the facemash": "Much of the trouble surrounding the facemash": "M*A*S*H-Online 'Facemash' Site, While Mildly Amusing, Catered to the Worst Side of Harvard Students," "M*A*S*H-Online 'Facemash' Site, While Mildly Amusing, Catered to the Worst Side of Harvard Students," Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson, November 6, 2003. November 6, 2003.31 By Sunday-four days after launch: By Sunday-four days after launch: Alan J. Tabak, "Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website," Alan J. Tabak, "Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website," Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson, February 9, 2004. February 9, 2004.31 Zuckerberg later told the Zuckerberg later told the Crimson Crimson that he "hoped": that he "hoped": Ibid. Ibid.33 "The nature of the site," he told the paper: "The nature of the site," he told the paper: Ibid. Ibid.33 Wrote junior Amelia Lester: Wrote junior Amelia Lester: Amelia Lester, "Show Your Best Face: Online Social Networks Are a Hop, Click and Jump From Reality," Amelia Lester, "Show Your Best Face: Online Social Networks Are a Hop, Click and Jump From Reality," Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson, February 17, 2004, February 17, 2004, http://www.thecrimson.harvard.edu/article/2004/2/17/show-your-best-face-lets-talk/ (accessed December 11, 2009). (accessed December 11, 2009).38 Zuckerberg and Saverin each agreed: Zuckerberg and Saverin each agreed: email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (December 11, 2009): "Mark believes each were going to put $10K or $20K in." email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (December 11, 2009): "Mark believes each were going to put $10K or $20K in."40 Back in that Back in that Crimson Crimson opinion piece: opinion piece: Ibid. Ibid.

2. Palo Alto Page 46 In the end they even hired: In the end they even hired: Lacy, 147. Lacy, 147.47 Parker had to overdraw: Parker had to overdraw: Lacy, 148. Lacy, 148.64 Zuckerberg and Moskovitz were planning to launch: Zuckerberg and Moskovitz were planning to launch: Olivia Ma, "Need Help? Check Down the Hall," Olivia Ma, "Need Help? Check Down the Hall," Newsweek, Newsweek, August 2, 2004, August 2, 2004, http://www.newsweek.com/id/54735/ (accessed December 11, 2009). (accessed December 11, 2009).

3. Social Networking and the Internet Page 66 In a 1968 essay by J. C. R. Licklider: In a 1968 essay by J. C. R. Licklider: J. C. R. Licklider and Robert Taylor, "The Computer as a Communication Device," J. C. R. Licklider and Robert Taylor, "The Computer as a Communication Device," Science and Technology Science and Technology (April 1968), http://www.kurzweilai.net/meme/frame.html?main=/articles/art0353.html (accessed December 11, 2009). (April 1968), http://www.kurzweilai.net/meme/frame.html?main=/articles/art0353.html (accessed December 11, 2009).67 "A virtual community is a group of people": "A virtual community is a group of people": Howard Rheingold, "Virtual Communities-Exchanging Ideas Through Computer Bulletin Boards," Howard Rheingold, "Virtual Communities-Exchanging Ideas Through Computer Bulletin Boards," Whole Earth Review Whole Earth Review (Winter 1987), (Winter 1987), http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1510/is_n57/ai_6203867/ (accessed November 15, 2009). (accessed November 15, 2009).67 Two Internet sociologists, danah boyd and Nicole Ellison: Two Internet sociologists, danah boyd and Nicole Ellison: danah boyd and Nicole Ellison, "Social Network Sites: Definition, History, And Scholarship," danah boyd and Nicole Ellison, "Social Network Sites: Definition, History, And Scholarship," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (2007), http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html (accessed November 15, 2009). 13 (2007), http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol13/issue1/boyd.ellison.html (accessed November 15, 2009).69 Nonetheless, by 1999 sixdegrees had reached: Nonetheless, by 1999 sixdegrees had reached: Details about sixdegrees from interview and email followup with Andrew Weinreich, 2009. Details about sixdegrees from interview and email followup with Andrew Weinreich, 2009.74 But, according to But, according to Stealing Mys.p.a.ce: Julia Angwin, Stealing Mys.p.a.ce: Julia Angwin, Stealing Mys.p.a.ce: The Battle to Control the Most Popular Website in America Stealing Mys.p.a.ce: The Battle to Control the Most Popular Website in America (New York: Random House, 2009), 52. (New York: Random House, 2009), 52.76 In 2003, Angwin notes, the percentage of Americans: In 2003, Angwin notes, the percentage of Americans: Ibid. Ibid.77 Buyukkokten himself once bragged: Buyukkokten himself once bragged: Luke O'Brien, "Poking Facebook," Luke O'Brien, "Poking Facebook," 02138 Magazine 02138 Magazine (November 2007), www.02138mag.com/magazine/article/1724.html (accessed November 28, 2009). (November 2007), www.02138mag.com/magazine/article/1724.html (accessed November 28, 2009).80 Previously they'd won a gold medal: Ibid. Previously they'd won a gold medal: Ibid.83 The civil lawsuit filed on behalf of the three alleges: ConnectU, Inc. v. Facebook, Inc. et al., The civil lawsuit filed on behalf of the three alleges: ConnectU, Inc. v. Facebook, Inc. et al., in "Justia News And Commentary," in "Justia News And Commentary," Justia.com, Justia.com, http://news.justia.com/cases/featured/ma.s.sachusetts/madce/1:2007cv10593/108516/ (accessed November 28, 2009). (accessed November 28, 2009).84 In September 2004 when they filed suit: In September 2004 when they filed suit: Marcella Bombardieri, "Online adversaries: Rivalry between college-networking websites sp.a.w.ns lawsuit," Marcella Bombardieri, "Online adversaries: Rivalry between college-networking websites sp.a.w.ns lawsuit," Boston Globe Boston Globe (September 17, 2004), (September 17, 2004), http://www.boston.com/news/education/higher/articles/2004/09/17/ (accessed December 27, 2009). (accessed December 27, 2009).84 It gave the ConnectU's creators plenty of money: It gave the ConnectU's creators plenty of money: Michael Liedtke, "Facebook Appraisal Pegs Company's Value At $3.7B," Michael Liedtke, "Facebook Appraisal Pegs Company's Value At $3.7B," San Francisco Chronicle San Francisco Chronicle (February 11, 2009), http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2009/02/10/state/n230703s73.dtl (accessed November 28, 2009). (February 11, 2009), http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/n/a/2009/02/10/state/n230703s73.dtl (accessed November 28, 2009).84 In his autobiography: In his autobiography: Aaron Greenspan, Aaron Greenspan, Authoritas: One Student's Harvard Admissions and the Founding of the Facebook Era Authoritas: One Student's Harvard Admissions and the Founding of the Facebook Era (Palo Alto, CA: Think Press, 2008). (Palo Alto, CA: Think Press, 2008).

4. Fall 2004 Page 86 He and his parents had loaned the company: He and his parents had loaned the company: Kevin J. Feeney, "Business, Casual," Kevin J. Feeney, "Business, Casual," Harvard Crimson, Harvard Crimson, February 24, 2005, February 24, 2005, http://www.thecrimson.com/article/2005/2/24/business-casual-a-year-ago-mark/ (accessed November 28, 2009). (accessed November 28, 2009).89 Thiel told Zuckerberg: Thiel told Zuckerberg: Lacy, 154. Lacy, 154.97 Achilles: Achilles: Now you know: Now you know: Quotes for Achilles (character) from Quotes for Achilles (character) from Troy Troy (2004), (2004), IMDB, IMDB, http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0004244/quotes (accessed November 15, 2009). http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0004244/quotes (accessed November 15, 2009).97 beginning to wend its way through federal court: beginning to wend its way through federal court: Feeney, "Business, Casual." Feeney, "Business, Casual."

5. Investors Page 110 Investor interest was further heightened: Rebecca Trounson, "'Hi, What's Your Major?' Is Reinvented on Website," Investor interest was further heightened: Rebecca Trounson, "'Hi, What's Your Major?' Is Reinvented on Website," Los Angeles Times Los Angeles Times (January 23, 2005), (January 23, 2005), http://articles.latimes.com/2005/jan/23/local/me-facebook23 (accessed December 27, 2009). (accessed December 27, 2009).113 He and Moskovitz would have gotten close to $10 million: He and Moskovitz would have gotten close to $10 million: Sean Parker, interview with the author. Sean Parker, interview with the author.115 By early 2004 Tickle had become: By early 2004 Tickle had become: Interview with Samir Arora, January 11, 2010. (Arora was chairman of the board of Tickle in early 2004.) Interview with Samir Arora, January 11, 2010. (Arora was chairman of the board of Tickle in early 2004.) 6. Becoming a Company Page 129 Zuckerberg had to be careful which business card: Zuckerberg had to be careful which business card: Karel M. Baloun, Karel M. Baloun, Inside Facebook: Life, Work and Visions of Greatness Inside Facebook: Life, Work and Visions of Greatness (Bloomington, IN: Trafford, 2007), 23. (Bloomington, IN: Trafford, 2007), 23.129 The main method initially was a wooden figure of an Italian chef: The main method initially was a wooden figure of an Italian chef: Ibid., 38. Ibid., 38.137 "Zuck would come into the office and, seeing every chair full": "Zuck would come into the office and, seeing every chair full": Ibid., 18. Ibid., 18.138 Zuckerberg's dry wit and cla.s.sicism showed: Zuckerberg's dry wit and cla.s.sicism showed: Ibid., 22. Ibid., 22.138 In the spring, Mys.p.a.ce founders Chris DeWolfe: In the spring, Mys.p.a.ce founders Chris DeWolfe: Angwin, Angwin, Stealing Mys.p.a.ce, Stealing Mys.p.a.ce, 121. 121.143 By year-end, it had $5.7 million left: ConnectU, Inc. v. Facebook, Inc. et al. By year-end, it had $5.7 million left: ConnectU, Inc. v. Facebook, Inc. et al.

7. Fall 2005 Page 149 As the school year resumed in the fall of 2005: As the school year resumed in the fall of 2005: Michael Arrington, "85% of College Students Use Facebook," Michael Arrington, "85% of College Students Use Facebook," TechCrunch, TechCrunch, September 7, 2005, September 7, 2005, www.techcrunch.com/2005/09/07/85-of-college-students-use-facebook/ (accessed November 15, 2009). (accessed November 15, 2009).151 One new group was called "You're Still in High School ... ": One new group was called "You're Still in High School ... ": John Ca.s.sidy, "Me Media: How Hanging Out On The Internet Became Big Business," John Ca.s.sidy, "Me Media: How Hanging Out On The Internet Became Big Business," New Yorker, New Yorker, May 15, 2006, http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/05/15/060515fa_fact_ca.s.sidy (accessed December 11, 2009). May 15, 2006, http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2006/05/15/060515fa_fact_ca.s.sidy (accessed December 11, 2009).151 At the beginning of the school year, Facebook had nearly doubled: At the beginning of the school year, Facebook had nearly doubled: Owen Van Natta, interview with author, May 15, 2007. Owen Van Natta, interview with author, May 15, 2007.152 Ever vigilant about compet.i.tors: Ever vigilant about compet.i.tors: Angwin, Angwin, Stealing Mys.p.a.ce, Stealing Mys.p.a.ce, 140, 177. 140, 177.153 Zuckerberg was dismissive: Zuckerberg was dismissive: Ibid., 177. Ibid., 177.156 By early 2010 Facebook was hosting: By early 2010 Facebook was hosting: email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations, February 24, 2010. email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations, February 24, 2010.

8. The CEO Page 166 "I want to stress the importance of being young": "I want to stress the importance of being young": Mark c.o.ker, "Start-Up Advice For Entrepreneurs, From Y Combinator Startup School," Mark c.o.ker, "Start-Up Advice For Entrepreneurs, From Y Combinator Startup School," Venturebeat, Venturebeat, March 26, 2007, March 26, 2007, http://venturebeat.com/2007/03/26/start-up-advice-for-entrepreneurs-from-y-combinator-start-up-school/ (accessed November 28, 2009). (accessed November 28, 2009).169 But at the end of March, But at the end of March, BusinessWeek's BusinessWeek's online edition: online edition: Steve Rosenbush, "Facebook's on the Block," Steve Rosenbush, "Facebook's on the Block," BusinessWeek, BusinessWeek, March 28, 2006, http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2006/tc20060327_215976.htm (accessed November 15, 2009). March 28, 2006, http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/mar2006/tc20060327_215976.htm (accessed November 15, 2009).170 But to Zuckerberg, what was more significant: But to Zuckerberg, what was more significant: Ibid. Ibid.171 Another imitator, which launched around the same time in China: Another imitator, which launched around the same time in China: Baloun, Baloun, Inside Facebook, Inside Facebook, 95. 95.173 He also quoted a sociologist who speculated: He also quoted a sociologist who speculated: Ca.s.sidy, "Me Media." Ca.s.sidy, "Me Media."174 who he had met while: who he had met while: Lacy, 162. Lacy, 162.174 After some negotiation, Zuckerberg: After some negotiation, Zuckerberg: Lacy, 162. Lacy, 162.176 A week after the program launched: A week after the program launched: Rob Walker, "A For-Credit Course," Rob Walker, "A For-Credit Course," New York Times, New York Times, September 30, 2007, September 30, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/30/magazine/30wwInconsumed-t.html (accessed December 27, 2009). (accessed December 27, 2009).177 As part of the deal the ad giant: As part of the deal the ad giant: email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations, December 11, 2009. email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations, December 11, 2009.

9. 2006.

Page 184 Peter Thiel, older but very sympathetic: Lacy, 165. Peter Thiel, older but very sympathetic: Lacy, 165.186 Some nights, unable to sleep: Some nights, unable to sleep: David Kushner, "The Baby Billionaires of Silicon Valley," David Kushner, "The Baby Billionaires of Silicon Valley," Rolling Stone, Rolling Stone, November 16, 2006, November 16, 2006, http://rollingstone.com/news/story/12286036/the_baby_billionaires_of_silicon_valley (accessed November 28, 2009). (accessed November 28, 2009).186 "I hope he doesn't sell it": "I hope he doesn't sell it": Kevin Colleran, interview with the author. Kevin Colleran, interview with the author.190 Within about three hours the group's membership: Within about three hours the group's membership: Tracy Samantha Schmidt, "Inside the Backlash Against Facebook," Tracy Samantha Schmidt, "Inside the Backlash Against Facebook," Time, Time, September 6, 2006, September 6, 2006, www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1532225,00.html (accessed December 11, 2009). (accessed December 11, 2009).190 And there were about five hundred other protest groups: And there were about five hundred other protest groups: Brandon Moore, "Student users say new Facebook feed borders on stalking," Brandon Moore, "Student users say new Facebook feed borders on stalking," Arizona Daily Wildcat, Arizona Daily Wildcat, September 8, 2006, http://wildcat.arizona.edu/2.2257/student-users-say-new-facebook-feed-borders-on-stalking-1.177273 (accessed December 11, 2009). September 8, 2006, http://wildcat.arizona.edu/2.2257/student-users-say-new-facebook-feed-borders-on-stalking-1.177273 (accessed December 11, 2009).190 "Chuck Norris come save us": "Chuck Norris come save us": Layla Aslani, "Users Rebel Against Facebook Feature," Layla Aslani, "Users Rebel Against Facebook Feature," Michigan Daily, Michigan Daily, September 7, 2006, http://www.michigandaily.com/content/users-rebel-against-facebook-feature (accessed December 11, 2009). September 7, 2006, http://www.michigandaily.com/content/users-rebel-against-facebook-feature (accessed December 11, 2009).190 "You shouldn't be forced to have a Web log": "You shouldn't be forced to have a Web log": Moore, "Student Users." Moore, "Student Users."190 "I'm really creeped out": "I'm really creeped out": Aslani, "Users Rebel." Aslani, "Users Rebel."191 But Zuckerberg, in New York on a promotional trip: But Zuckerberg, in New York on a promotional trip: Andrew Kessler, "Weekend Interview with Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg," Andrew Kessler, "Weekend Interview with Facebook's Mark Zuckerberg," Wall Street Journal, Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2007, http://www.and.y.k.essler.com/andy_kessler/2007/03/wsj_weekend_int.html (accessed December 11, 2009). March 24, 2007, http://www.and.y.k.essler.com/andy_kessler/2007/03/wsj_weekend_int.html (accessed December 11, 2009).

10. Privacy Page 200 As one expert in privacy law recently asked: James Grimmelmann, "Saving Facebook," As one expert in privacy law recently asked: James Grimmelmann, "Saving Facebook," Iowa Law Review Iowa Law Review (2009), http://www.law.uiowa.edu/journals/ilr/Issue%20PDFs/ILR_944_Grimmelmann.pdf (accessed December 11, 2009). (2009), http://www.law.uiowa.edu/journals/ilr/Issue%20PDFs/ILR_944_Grimmelmann.pdf (accessed December 11, 2009).201 "At every turn, it seems Facebook makes it more difficult": "At every turn, it seems Facebook makes it more difficult": Marc Rotenberg, "Online Friends At What Price?," Marc Rotenberg, "Online Friends At What Price?," Sacramento Bee, Sacramento Bee, July 20, 2008. July 20, 2008.203 She defined it as "being able to keep in touch with people": She defined it as "being able to keep in touch with people": Leisa Reichelt, "Ambient Intimacy," Leisa Reichelt, "Ambient Intimacy," Disambiguity, Disambiguity, March 1, 2007, March 1, 2007, http://www.disambiguity.com/ambient-intimacy/ (accessed November 15, 2009). (accessed November 15, 2009).204 A widely discussed 2008 article in the A widely discussed 2008 article in the New York Times: Clive Thompson, "Brave New World of Digital Intimacy," New York Times: Clive Thompson, "Brave New World of Digital Intimacy," New York Times Magazine, New York Times Magazine, September 7, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/07/magazine/07awareness-t.html (accessed December 11, 2009). September 7, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/07/magazine/07awareness-t.html (accessed December 11, 2009).205 Facebook membership is becoming common: Facebook membership is becoming common: Catherine Arnst, "Kids on Facebook," Catherine Arnst, "Kids on Facebook," BusinessWeek Working Parents Blog BusinessWeek Working Parents Blog (January 9, 2010), http://www.businessweek.com/careers/workingparents/blog/archives/2010/01//kids_on_facebook.html (accessed January 17, 2010). (January 9, 2010), http://www.businessweek.com/careers/workingparents/blog/archives/2010/01//kids_on_facebook.html (accessed January 17, 2010).205 A guard at a Leicester, England, prison: A guard at a Leicester, England, prison: "Facebook Prison Officer Is Sacked," "Facebook Prison Officer Is Sacked," BBC News, BBC News, March 23, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr//2/hi/uk_news/england/leicestershire/7959063.stm (accessed November 15, 2009). March 23, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr//2/hi/uk_news/england/leicestershire/7959063.stm (accessed November 15, 2009).205 A Philadelphia court officer was suspended: A Philadelphia court officer was suspended: "Facebook Bid Costs Phila. Court Aide," "Facebook Bid Costs Phila. Court Aide," Philly.com, Philly.com, April 23, 2009, http://www.philly.com/philly/news/homepage/20090423_Facebook_bid_costs_Phila_court_aide.html (accessed November 15, 2009). April 23, 2009, http://www.philly.com/philly/news/homepage/20090423_Facebook_bid_costs_Phila_court_aide.html (accessed November 15, 2009).205 They included images of holidays: They included images of holidays: Jon Hemming, "British spy chief's cover blown on Facebook," Reuters, July 6, 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE56403820090705 (accessed December 11, 2009). Jon Hemming, "British spy chief's cover blown on Facebook," Reuters, July 6, 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE56403820090705 (accessed December 11, 2009).206 The outcome can even be tragic: The outcome can even be tragic: "Man Killed Wife in Facebook Row," "Man Killed Wife in Facebook Row," BBC News, BBC News, October 17, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/7676285.stm (accessed November 15, 2009). October 17, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/london/7676285.stm (accessed November 15, 2009).206 The Internet theorist David Weinberger: The Internet theorist David Weinberger: David Weinberger, "Weblog Stat Questions," David Weinberger, "Weblog Stat Questions," Joho the Blog: David Weinberger's Weblog, Joho the Blog: David Weinberger's Weblog, December 19, 2001, http://www.hyperorg.com/blogger/archive/2001_12_01_archive.html. December 19, 2001, http://www.hyperorg.com/blogger/archive/2001_12_01_archive.html.207 At Amherst Regional High School: At Amherst Regional High School: Mary Carey, "Spurned High School Student Commits Facebook Revenge," Mary Carey, "Spurned High School Student Commits Facebook Revenge," Amherst Bulletin, Amherst Bulletin, January 9, 2009, January 9, 2009, http://www.amherstbulletin.com/story/id/124207/ (accessed December 11, 2009). (accessed December 11, 2009).207 Those with red plastic cups were spared: Those with red plastic cups were spared: Lisa Guernsey, "Picture Your Name Here," Lisa Guernsey, "Picture Your Name Here," New York Times, New York Times, July 27, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/27/education/edlife/27facebook-innovation.html (accessed December 11, 2009). July 27, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/27/education/edlife/27facebook-innovation.html (accessed December 11, 2009).208 These groups-for work, family, college friends: These groups-for work, family, college friends: "Press Room: Product Overview FAQ," Facebook, http://www.facebook.com/press/faq.php (accessed February 24, 2010). "Press Room: Product Overview FAQ," Facebook, http://www.facebook.com/press/faq.php (accessed February 24, 2010).211 "I didn't even put the company's name": "I didn't even put the company's name": "Office Worker Sacked For Branding Work Boring On Facebook," "Office Worker Sacked For Branding Work Boring On Facebook," Daily Telegraph, Daily Telegraph, February 26, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/4838076/Office-worker-sacked-for-branding-work-boring-on-Facebook.html (accessed November 28, 2009). February 26, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/facebook/4838076/Office-worker-sacked-for-branding-work-boring-on-Facebook.html (accessed November 28, 2009).211 "Most employers wouldn't dream": "Most employers wouldn't dream": "Facebook Remark Teenager Is Fired," "Facebook Remark Teenager Is Fired," BBC News, BBC News, February 27, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/uk_news/england/ess.e.x/7914415.stm (accessed November 15, 2009). February 27, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/uk_news/england/ess.e.x/7914415.stm (accessed November 15, 2009).211 She then sued the princ.i.p.al in federal court: She then sued the princ.i.p.al in federal court: "Facebook Postings By Students Sparking Legal Fights," "Facebook Postings By Students Sparking Legal Fights," South Florida Sun-Sentinel, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, December 13, 2008, www.sun-sentinel.com/news/schools/sfl-flbfacebook1213sbdec13,0,3402411.story (accessed November 15, 2009). December 13, 2008, www.sun-sentinel.com/news/schools/sfl-flbfacebook1213sbdec13,0,3402411.story (accessed November 15, 2009).212 "There's a deep, probably irreconcilable tension": "There's a deep, probably irreconcilable tension": Grimmelmann, "Saving Facebook." Grimmelmann, "Saving Facebook."212 "peer-to-peer privacy violations": "peer-to-peer privacy violations": Ibid. Ibid.212 In Harrison, New York, a police detective: In Harrison, New York, a police detective: Swapna Venugopal Ramaswamy, "Facebook 4 Docked Pay; 2 Demoted," Swapna Venugopal Ramaswamy, "Facebook 4 Docked Pay; 2 Demoted," Journal News, Journal News, June 6, 2009, http://m.lohud.com/detail.jsp?key=250959&full=1 (accessed November 28, 2009). June 6, 2009, http://m.lohud.com/detail.jsp?key=250959&full=1 (accessed November 28, 2009).213 An Australian woman named Elmo Keep: An Australian woman named Elmo Keep: Asher Moses, "Banned For Keeps On Facebook For Odd Name," Asher Moses, "Banned For Keeps On Facebook For Odd Name," Sydney Morning Herald, Sydney Morning Herald, September 25, 2008, http://www.smh.com/au/articles/2008/09/25/1222217399252.html (accessed November 15, 2009). September 25, 2008, http://www.smh.com/au/articles/2008/09/25/1222217399252.html (accessed November 15, 2009).213 Others who have had difficulties include j.a.panese author Hiroko Yoda: Others who have had difficulties include j.a.panese author Hiroko Yoda: Ibid. Ibid.213 A man in Cardiff, Wales, located a half brother: A man in Cardiff, Wales, located a half brother: Catherine Mary Evans, "The Facebook Reunion: How Two Brothers Got In Touch Again For The First Time In 35 Years," Catherine Mary Evans, "The Facebook Reunion: How Two Brothers Got In Touch Again For The First Time In 35 Years," South Wales Echo, South Wales Echo, January 16, 2009, January 16, 2009, http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/wales-news/2009/01/16/the-facebook-reunion-how-two-brothers-got-in-touch-again-for-the-first-time-in-35-years-9146622704778/ (accessed December 11, 2009). (accessed December 11, 2009).214 "Here's the major change in the last two years": "Here's the major change in the last two years": Ben Parr, "Social Media And Privacy: Where Are We Two Years After Facebook News Feed?," Ben Parr, "Social Media And Privacy: Where Are We Two Years After Facebook News Feed?," Mashable.com, Mashable.com, September 8, 2008, September 8, 2008, http://mashable.com/2008/09/08/social-media-privacy-news-feed/ (accessed November 28, 2009). (accessed November 28, 2009).

11. The Platform Page 216 Every great technology company goes through: Every great technology company goes through: Thanks to Brent Schlender for these ideas. Thanks to Brent Schlender for these ideas.222 I published an article t.i.tled: I published an article t.i.tled: David Kirkpatrick, "Facebook's Plan toHook Up the World," David Kirkpatrick, "Facebook's Plan toHook Up the World," Fortune, Fortune, May 29, 2007, http://money.cnn.com/2007/05/24/technology/facebook.fortune/index.htm?postversion=2007052511 (accessed November 28, 2009). May 29, 2007, http://money.cnn.com/2007/05/24/technology/facebook.fortune/index.htm?postversion=2007052511 (accessed November 28, 2009).227 The demographics were already spreading out: The demographics were already spreading out: Dustin Moskovitz, interview with author, May 14, 2007. Dustin Moskovitz, interview with author, May 14, 2007.228 A couple of young guys in San Francisco: A couple of young guys in San Francisco: Nick O'Neill, "Lessons From A Successful Facebook Application Team," Nick O'Neill, "Lessons From A Successful Facebook Application Team," Allfacebook, Allfacebook, June 28, 2007, June 28, 2007, http://www.allfacebook.com/2007/06/lessons-from-a-successful-facebook-application-team/ (accessed November 28, 2009). (accessed November 28, 2009).229 Shortly after Scrabulous launched, Hasbro: Shortly after Scrabulous launched, Hasbro: Judith Thurman, "Spreading The Word: The New Scrabble Mania," Judith Thurman, "Spreading The Word: The New Scrabble Mania," New Yorker, New Yorker, January 19, 2009, http://archives.newyorker.com/?i=20090119#folio=026 (accessed December 11, 2009). January 19, 2009, http://archives.newyorker.com/?i=20090119#folio=026 (accessed December 11, 2009).229 Texas HoldEm had 20.3 million: Texas HoldEm had 20.3 million: App Leadership, Appdata, App Leadership, Appdata, Insidefacebook, Insidefacebook, http://www.appdata.com/leaderboard/apps (accessed December 14, 2009). http://www.appdata.com/leaderboard/apps (accessed December 14, 2009).230 The highly complex World of Warcraft: The highly complex World of Warcraft: "World of Warcraft Subscriber Base Reaches 11.5 Million Worldwide," Blizzard Entertainment, press release (December 23, 2008), "World of Warcraft Subscriber Base Reaches 11.5 Million Worldwide," Blizzard Entertainment, press release (December 23, 2008), http://eu.blizzard.com/en-gb/company/press/pressreleases.html?081223232 More than 250 of these applications: More than 250 of these applications: emails from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010). emails from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010).232 Justin Smith of Inside Facebook estimates: Justin Smith of Inside Facebook estimates: Michael Learmonth and Abbey Klaa.s.sen, "App Revenue Is Poised To Surpa.s.s Facebook Revenue," Michael Learmonth and Abbey Klaa.s.sen, "App Revenue Is Poised To Surpa.s.s Facebook Revenue," Advertising Age, Advertising Age, May 18, 2009, http://adage.com/digital/article?article_id=136700 (accessed November 28, 2009). May 18, 2009, http://adage.com/digital/article?article_id=136700 (accessed November 28, 2009).233 Numerous Facebook games have revenue: Numerous Facebook games have revenue: Ibid. Ibid.

12. $15 Billion Page 236 A little more than a year earlier, its third round: A little more than a year earlier, its third round: "Press Room: Facebook Factsheet," Facebook, http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?factsheet (accessed November 28, 2009). "Press Room: Facebook Factsheet," Facebook, http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?factsheet (accessed November 28, 2009).248 In fact it was to be her surprise: In fact it was to be her surprise: Ellen Nakashima, "Feeling Betrayed, Facebook Users Force Site To Honor Their Privacy," Ellen Nakashima, "Feeling Betrayed, Facebook Users Force Site To Honor Their Privacy," Washington Post, Washington Post, November 30, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/29/ar2007112902503.html (accessed November 28, 2009). November 30, 2007, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/29/ar2007112902503.html (accessed November 28, 2009).249 Quittner compared twenty-three-year-old Zuckerberg's rash decision making: Quittner compared twenty-three-year-old Zuckerberg's rash decision making: Josh Quittner, "RIP Facebook?," Josh Quittner, "RIP Facebook?," Fortune, Fortune, December 4, 2007, December 4, 2007, http://techland.blogs.fortune.cnn.com/2007/12/04/rip-facebook/ (accessed November 15, 2009). (accessed November 15, 2009).

13. Making Money Page 265 Some were as young as fourteen: Brooks Barnes, "An Animated Film Is Created Through Internet Consensus," Some were as young as fourteen: Brooks Barnes, "An Animated Film Is Created Through Internet Consensus," New York Times, New York Times, July 16, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/16/movies/16ma.s.s.html (accessed December 11, 2009). July 16, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/16/movies/16ma.s.s.html (accessed December 11, 2009).265 Its Facebook page attracted 57,000 members: Its Facebook page attracted 57,000 members: Ibid. Ibid.272 Pages had about 5.3 billion fans: Pages had about 5.3 billion fans: Facebook Press Room: Statistics. Facebook Press Room: Statistics. http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics (accessed February 24, 2010). (accessed February 24, 2010).272 about twenty million users become new fans: about twenty million users become new fans: email communication with Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations department (February 24, 2010). email communication with Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations department (February 24, 2010).

14. Facebook and the World 279 when groups there grew to include "Lesbians when groups there grew to include "Lesbians in Dubai": in Dubai": "UAE bans Facebook," "UAE bans Facebook," Kipp Report Kipp Report (February 2008), http://www.kippreport.com/2008/02/uae-bans-facebook/?next=4 (accessed November 15, 2009). (February 2008), http://www.kippreport.com/2008/02/uae-bans-facebook/?next=4 (accessed November 15, 2009).279 After Italian Facebook groups emerged: After Italian Facebook groups emerged: Steve Scherer and Giovanni Salzano, "Facebook Says Italy's Plan To Block Web Content Goes Too Far," Bloomberg, February 12, 2009, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601085&sid=a6bncyt8rtlw (accessed November 28, 2009). Steve Scherer and Giovanni Salzano, "Facebook Says Italy's Plan To Block Web Content Goes Too Far," Bloomberg, February 12, 2009, http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601085&sid=a6bncyt8rtlw (accessed November 28, 2009).279 Meanwhile, a group called "All Palestinians on Facebook": Meanwhile, a group called "All Palestinians on Facebook": Rory McCarthy, "Israel-Palestine Dispute Moves On To Facebook," Rory McCarthy, "Israel-Palestine Dispute Moves On To Facebook," Guardian, Guardian, March 20, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/20/israelandthepalestinians.facebook (accessed November 28, 2009). March 20, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/20/israelandthepalestinians.facebook (accessed November 28, 2009).280 Employees of the city of Naples: Global Faces and Networked Places: A Nielsen Report on Social Networking's New Global Footprint Employees of the city of Naples: Global Faces and Networked Places: A Nielsen Report on Social Networking's New Global Footprint (New York: Nielsen Company, 2009). (New York: Nielsen Company, 2009).280 An aide called it a great way to connect: An aide called it a great way to connect: "Danish PM Jogs With Facebook Fans," "Danish PM Jogs With Facebook Fans," BBC News, BBC News, April 18, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/europe/7355434.stm (accessed November 28, 2009). April 18, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/2/hi/europe/7355434.stm (accessed November 28, 2009).280 Obscure Colombian rock bands: Obscure Colombian rock bands: Leila Cobo, "Bands reach fans through Spanish-language Facebook," Reuters, February 22, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/idusn2262041620080223 (accessed November 28, 2009). Leila Cobo, "Bands reach fans through Spanish-language Facebook," Reuters, February 22, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/idusn2262041620080223 (accessed November 28, 2009).280 "I log in three hours a day": "I log in three hours a day": Nadine El Sayed, "Smile And Say 'Facebook,'" Nadine El Sayed, "Smile And Say 'Facebook,'" Egypt Today Egypt Today (April 2007), www.egypttoday.com/article.aspx?articleid=7293 (accessed November 28, 2009). (April 2007), www.egypttoday.com/article.aspx?articleid=7293 (accessed November 28, 2009).281 "Internationally ... Facebook is perceived as mainstream": Global Faces and Networked Places. "Internationally ... Facebook is perceived as mainstream": Global Faces and Networked Places.284 A couple of days before I joined him in Madrid: A couple of days before I joined him in Madrid: "Facebook's Priority Is Growth Not Profit," "Facebook's Priority Is Growth Not Profit," Daily Telegraph, Daily Telegraph, October 9, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/3358773/Facebooks-priority-is-growth-not-profit.html (accessed November 28, 2009). October 9, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/3358773/Facebooks-priority-is-growth-not-profit.html (accessed November 28, 2009).286 "The clerics think it is necessary": "The clerics think it is necessary": Indra Harsaputra, "Indonesian Clerics Want Rules For Facebook," Indra Harsaputra, "Indonesian Clerics Want Rules For Facebook," ABC News, ABC News, May 21, 2009, http://abcnews.go.com/technology/wirestory?id=7641723 (accessed November 28, 2009). May 21, 2009, http://abcnews.go.com/technology/wirestory?id=7641723 (accessed November 28, 2009).

15. Changing Our Inst.i.tutions Page 289 "You can't ignore 20,000 people": "You can't ignore 20,000 people": Josh Hafenbrack, "Online Political Action Can Spark Offline Change," Josh Hafenbrack, "Online Political Action Can Spark Offline Change," South Florida Sun-Sentinel, South Florida Sun-Sentinel, April 6, 2008, http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/20080406/news/0804050256_1_facebook-online-networking-new-media (accessed December 11, 2009). April 6, 2008, http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/20080406/news/0804050256_1_facebook-online-networking-new-media (accessed December 11, 2009).289 Shortly afterward, the minister of communications: Shortly afterward, the minister of communications: "Egypt Reverses Download-Limit Policy Following Internet Subscribers' Protests," "Egypt Reverses Download-Limit Policy Following Internet Subscribers' Protests," Daily News Egypt, Daily News Egypt, August 14, 2009. August 14, 2009.289 After tens of thousands joined a Facebook group complaining: After tens of thousands joined a Facebook group complaining: Heru Andriyanto and Dessy Sagita, "More Prosecutors Probed In Prita Case," Heru Andriyanto and Dessy Sagita, "More Prosecutors Probed In Prita Case," Jakarta Globe, Jakarta Globe, June 9, 2009, http://thejakartaglobe.com/home/more-prosecutors-probed-in-prita-case/311188 (accessed November 28, 2009); Sherria Ayuandini, "Omni Case: A PR Suicide," June 9, 2009, http://thejakartaglobe.com/home/more-prosecutors-probed-in-prita-case/311188 (accessed November 28, 2009); Sherria Ayuandini, "Omni Case: A PR Suicide," Jakarta Post, Jakarta Post, June 5, 2009, http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/06/05/omni-case-a-pr-suicide.html (accessed November 28, 2009). June 5, 2009, http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2009/06/05/omni-case-a-pr-suicide.html (accessed November 28, 2009).290 When police conducted drug raids: When police conducted drug raids: "Maties Unite on Facebook," "Maties Unite on Facebook," News24, News24, November 3, 2008, http://www.news24.com/content/southafrica/news/1059/64b4adbddb44457cafea4f83b48c4b49/110320080311/maties_unite_on_facebook (accessed November 28, 2009). November 3, 2008, http://www.news24.com/content/southafrica/news/1059/64b4adbddb44457cafea4f83b48c4b49/110320080311/maties_unite_on_facebook (accessed November 28, 2009).290 Comedian David Letterman made a s.e.xual joke: Comedian David Letterman made a s.e.xual joke: Olivia Smith, "Fire David Letterman Campaign Takes Root; Protest Planned Over Comment on Sarah Palin's Daughter," Olivia Smith, "Fire David Letterman Campaign Takes Root; Protest Planned Over Comment on Sarah Palin's Daughter," Daily News, Daily News, June 15, 2009, http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/tv/2009/06/15/20090615_fire_david_letterman_campaign_takes_root_protest_planned_over_comment_on_sarah_p.html (accessed November 28, 2009). June 15, 2009, http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/tv/2009/06/15/20090615_fire_david_letterman_campaign_takes_root_protest_planned_over_comment_on_sarah_p.html (accessed November 28, 2009).290 Citizens joined on Facebook to protest a jail expansion: Citizens joined on Facebook to protest a jail expansion: Michele Clock, "City Turns to Twitter, Facebook to Fight Jail Expansion," Michele Clock, "City Turns to Twitter, Facebook to Fight Jail Expansion," San Diego Union Tribune, San Diego Union Tribune, June 8, 2009, June 8, 2009, http://www.signonsandiego.com/stories/2009/jun/08/1m8social231712-city-turns-twitter-facebook-fight-/ (accessed November 28, 2009). (accessed November 28, 2009).290 campground for gypsies in Bournemouth, England: campground for gypsies in Bournemouth, England: Louise Dunderdale, "Protestors Gather Outside Bournemouth Town Hall," Louise Dunderdale, "Protestors Gather Outside Bournemouth Town Hall," Bournemouth Daily Echo, Bournemouth Daily Echo, June 24, 2009, June 24, 2009, http://www.bournemouthecho.co.uk/news/4455424.protestors_gather_outside_bournemouth_town_hall/ (accessed November 28, 2009). (accessed November 28, 2009).290 plan by the Philippine House of Representatives: plan by the Philippine House of Representatives: Joey Alarilla, "Filipinos Tweet, Liveblog House of Representatives Debate on Amending Const.i.tution," Joey Alarilla, "Filipinos Tweet, Liveblog House of Representatives Debate on Amending Const.i.tution," CNET Asia, CNET Asia, June 2, 2009, http://asia.cnet.com/blogs/babelmachine/post.htm?id=63011182 (accessed November 28, 2009); Nina Catherine Calleja, "Outrage vs Const.i.tuent a.s.sembly on Facebook," June 2, 2009, http://asia.cnet.com/blogs/babelmachine/post.htm?id=63011182 (accessed November 28, 2009); Nina Catherine Calleja, "Outrage vs Const.i.tuent a.s.sembly on Facebook," Philippine Daily Inquirer, Philippine Daily Inquirer, June 9, 2009, http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/topstories/topstories/view/20090609209641/outrage-vs-const.i.tuent-a.s.sembly-on-facebook (accessed November 28, 2009). June 9, 2009, http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/topstories/topstories/view/20090609209641/outrage-vs-const.i.tuent-a.s.sembly-on-facebook (accessed November 28, 2009).290 the relocation to Bermuda of prisoners: the relocation to Bermuda of prisoners: Sarah t.i.tterton, "Life in Paradise As Guantanamo Four Take a Dip, Eat Ice Cream, and Plan First Uighur Restaurant in British Territory of Bermuda," Sarah t.i.tterton, "Life in Paradise As Guantanamo Four Take a Dip, Eat Ice Cream, and Plan First Uighur Restaurant in British Territory of Bermuda," Daily Mail, Daily Mail, June 15, 2009, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1192872/guantanamo-4-hit-shops-day-freedom.html (accessed November 28, 2009). June 15, 2009, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1192872/guantanamo-4-hit-shops-day-freedom.html (accessed November 28, 2009).293 By correlating student membership in Facebook political groups: By correlating student membership in Facebook political groups: Jessica T. Feezell, Meredith Conroy, and Mario Guerrero, "Facebook Is ... Fostering Political Engagement: A Study Of Online Social Networking Groups And Offline Partic.i.p.ation," paper presented at the American Political Science a.s.sociation Annual Meeting, Toronto, September 36, 2009. Jessica T. Feezell, Meredith Conroy, and Mario Guerrero, "Facebook Is ... Fostering Political Engagement: A Study Of Online Social Networking Groups And Offline Partic.i.p.ation," paper presented at the American Political Science a.s.sociation Annual Meeting, Toronto, September 36, 2009.294 "It's the ideal way for her to keep in touch": "It's the ideal way for her to keep in touch": Andy Barr, "Palin emerges as Facebook phenom," Andy Barr, "Palin emerges as Facebook phenom," Politico, Politico, September 19, 2009, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0909/27344.html (accessed November 15, 2009). September 19, 2009, http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0909/27344.html (accessed November 15, 2009).295 The commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard updates: The commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard updates: Sagar Meghani, "Pentagon Uses Facebook, Twitter to Spread Message," Sagar Meghani, "Pentagon Uses Facebook, Twitter to Spread Message," U.S. News & World Report, U.S. News & World Report, May 1, 2009, http://www.usnews.com/articles/science/2009/05/01/pentagon-uses-facebook-twitter-to-spread-message.html (accessed November 15, 2009). May 1, 2009, http://www.usnews.com/articles/science/2009/05/01/pentagon-uses-facebook-twitter-to-spread-message.html (accessed November 15, 2009).295 Even the Saudi Arabian minister of information: Even the Saudi Arabian minister of information: Faisal J. Abbas, "'Just Add Me': Saudi Information Minister Embraces Social Networking," Faisal J. Abbas, "'Just Add Me': Saudi Information Minister Embraces Social Networking," Huffington Post, Huffington Post, July 7, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/faisal-abbas/just-add-me-saudi-informa_b_226281.html (accessed November 15, 2009). July 7, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/faisal-abbas/just-add-me-saudi-informa_b_226281.html (accessed November 15, 2009).295 "Zuckerberg ... realized that Facebook wasn't a tool": "Zuckerberg ... realized that Facebook wasn't a tool": Zachary Stewart, "Five Years of Facebook: How It Redefined What We Consider 'News,'" Nieman Journalism Lab, February 4, 2009, Zachary Stewart, "Five Years of Facebook: How It Redefined What We Consider 'News,'" Nieman Journalism Lab, February 4, 2009, http://www.niemanlab.org/2009/02/five-years-of-facebook-how-it-redefined-what-we-consider-news/ (accessed November 15, 2009). (accessed November 15, 2009).296 it was via Facebook status updates: BackStory Behind the Scenes, it was via Facebook status updates: BackStory Behind the Scenes, CNN (January 14, 2010), CNN (January 14, 2010), http://www.cnn.com/video/#/video/world/2010/01/14/bs.haiti.earthquake.cnn?iref=videosearch (accessed January 16, 2010). (accessed January 16, 2010).

16. The Evolution of Facebook Page 306 Over 80,000 websites use it: Over 80,000 websites use it: email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (December 11, 2009). email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (December 11, 2009).310 Jonathan Zittrain, a professor at Harvard Law School: Jonathan Zittrain, a professor at Harvard Law School: Jonathan Zittrain, "E Pluribus Facebook," Jonathan Zittrain, "E Pluribus Facebook," The Future Of The Internet-And How To Stop It, The Future Of The Internet-And How To Stop It, April 17, 2009, http://futureoftheinternet.org/e-pluribus-facebook (accessed November 28, 2009). April 17, 2009, http://futureoftheinternet.org/e-pluribus-facebook (accessed November 28, 2009).316 Facebook's iPhone, BlackBerry, and Google Android applications: Facebook's iPhone, BlackBerry, and Google Android applications: email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010). email from Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010).

17. The Future Page 325 "What happens on Facebook's servers stays": "What happens on Facebook's servers stays": Fred Vogelstein, "The Great Wall of Facebook: The Social Network's Plan to Dominate the Internet-and Keep Google Out," Fred Vogelstein, "The Great Wall of Facebook: The Social Network's Plan to Dominate the Internet-and Keep Google Out," Wired, Wired, June 22, 2009, http://www.wired.com/techbiz/it/magazine/1707/ff_facebookwall (accessed November 15, 2009). June 22, 2009, http://www.wired.com/techbiz/it/magazine/1707/ff_facebookwall (accessed November 15, 2009).326 In a rare public admission, a Google product manager: In a rare public admission, a Google product manager: Jay Alabaster, "Google Increasingly Battles Facebook in Search," Jay Alabaster, "Google Increasingly Battles Facebook in Search," Huffington Post, Huffington Post, May 25, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/05/25/google-increasingly-battl_n_207449.html (accessed November 15, 2009). May 25, 2009, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2009/05/25/google-increasingly-battl_n_207449.html (accessed November 15, 2009).328 A larger percentage of Canada's online population: A larger percentage of Canada's online population: Smith, Smith, The Facebook Global Monitor The Facebook Global Monitor.328 Says John Clippinger, an official: Says John Clippinger, an official: John Clippinger, John Clippinger, A Crowd of One: The Future of Individual Ident.i.ty A Crowd of One: The Future of Individual Ident.i.ty (New York: PublicAffairs, 2007). (New York: PublicAffairs, 2007).331 The average age of the 1,400 employees: The average age of the 1,400 employees: email communication with Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010). email communication with Brandee Barker, Facebook public relations (February 24, 2010).

Additional Reading Abelson, H., K. Ledeen, H. Lewis. Blown to Bits: Your Life, Liberty and Happiness After the Digital Explosion. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 2008.Abram, C., L. Pearlman. Facebook for Dummies Facebook for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008.Angwin, Julia. Stealing Mys.p.a.ce: The Battle to Control the Most Popular Website in America. New York: Random House, 2009.Battelle, John. The Search: How Google and Its Rivals Rewrote the Rules of Business and Transformed Our Culture. New York: Portfolio, 2005.Benkler, Yochai. The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006.Brin, David. The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom? Reading, MA: Perseus Books, 1998.Buchanan, Mark. Nexus: Small Worlds and the Groundbreaking Science of Networks. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003.Clippinger, John Henry. A Crowd of One: The Future of Individual Ident.i.ty A Crowd of One: The Future of Individual Ident.i.ty. New York: PublicAffairs, 2007.De Jonghe, An. Social Networks Around the World: How Is Web 2.0 Changing Your Daily Life? An De Jonghe, 2007.Falk, Richard. Religion and Humane Global Governance Religion and Humane Global Governance. New York: Palgrave, 2001.Fogg, B. J. Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.Fraser, M., S. Dutta. Throwing Sheep in the Boardroom: How Online Social Networking Will Transform Your Life, Work and World. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008.Greenspan, Aaron. Authoritas: One Student's Harvard Admissions and the Founding of the Facebook Era. Palo Alto: Think Press, 2008.Hamel, Gary. The Future of Management The Future of Management. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2007.Lacy, Sarah. Once You're Lucky, Twice You're Good: The Rebirth of Silicon Valley and the Rise of Web 2.0. New York: Gotham Books, 2008.Li, C., J. Bernoff. Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies Groundswell: Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2008.McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1994.Mezrich, Ben. Accidental Billionaires: The Founding of Facebook, a Tale of s.e.x, Money, Genius and Betrayal. New York: Doubleday, 2009.Mulholland, A., N. Earle. Mesh Collaboration: Creating New Business Value in the Network of Everything. New York: Evolved Technologist Press, 2008.Palfrey, J., U. Ga.s.ser. Born Digital: Understanding the First Generation of Digital Natives. New York: Basic Books, 2008.Rice, Jesse. The Church of Facebook: How the Hyperconnected Are Redefining Community. Colorado Springs, CO: David C. Cook, 2009.Schawbel, Dan. Me 2.0: Build a Powerful Brand to Achieve Career Success. New York: Kaplan Publishing, 2009.Shapiro, C., H. Varian. Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1999.Shih, Clara. The Facebook Era: Tapping Online Social Networks to Build Better Products, Reach New Audiences, and Sell More Stuff. Boston: Prentice Hall, 2009.Shirky, Clay. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations. New York: The Penguin Press, 2008.Solove, Daniel. The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor and Privacy on the Internet. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007.Solove, Daniel. Understanding Privacy Understanding Privacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.Sunstein, Ca.s.s. Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge Infotopia: How Many Minds Produce Knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006.Tancer, Bill. Click: What Millions of People Are Doing Online and Why It Matters. New York: Hyperion, 2008.Tapscott, Don. Grown Up Digital: How the Net Generation Is Changing the World. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008.Turkle, Sherry. Life on the Screen: Ident.i.ty in the Age of the Internet. New York: Touchstone, 1995.Vander Veer, E. A. Facebook: The Missing Manual Facebook: The Missing Manual. Sebastopol, CA: O'Reilly, 2008.Weber, Larry. Marketing to the Social Web: How Digital Customer Communities Build Your Business. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009.Winograd, M., M. Hais. Millenial Makeover: Mys.p.a.ce, YouTube & the Future of American Politics Millenial Makeover: Mys.p.a.ce, YouTube & the Future of American Politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press: 2008.Wright, Robert. Non-Zero: The Logic of Human Destiny Non-Zero: The Logic of Human Destiny. New York: Pantheon Books, 2000.Zuniga, Markos Moulitsas. Taking On the System: Rules for Radical Change in a Digital Era. New York: Celebra, 2008.

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