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24 AIR 2003 study, II-27, II-28, II-29. AIR 2003 study, II-27, II-28, II-29.

25 Hightower, Hightower, San Diego's Big Boom San Diego's Big Boom, 19.

26 Larry Cuban and Michael Usdan, "Fast and Top-Down: Systemic Reform and Student Achievement in San Diego City Schools," in Larry Cuban and Michael Usdan, "Fast and Top-Down: Systemic Reform and Student Achievement in San Diego City Schools," in Powerful Reforms with Shallow Roots: Improving America's Urban Schools Powerful Reforms with Shallow Roots: Improving America's Urban Schools, ed. Larry Cuban and Michael Usdan (New York: Teachers College Press, 2003), 78, 82, 88-89.

27 Daphna Ba.s.sok and Margaret E. Raymond, "Performance Trends and the Blueprint for Student Success," in Daphna Ba.s.sok and Margaret E. Raymond, "Performance Trends and the Blueprint for Student Success," in Urban School Reform Urban School Reform, 308-309, 314-315.

28 Ibid., 310-317. Ibid., 310-317.

29 Julian Betts, "San Diego City Schools: Evidence Suggests Bersin Reforms Working," Julian Betts, "San Diego City Schools: Evidence Suggests Bersin Reforms Working," San Diego Union-Tribune San Diego Union-Tribune, October 14, 2005.

30 Maureen Magee and Helen Gao, "A Change in Plans," Maureen Magee and Helen Gao, "A Change in Plans," San Diego Union-Tribune San Diego Union-Tribune, June 12, 2005. There is no single consistent measure for the Blueprint era because the state changed its tests during this time. However, Magee and Gao note that on the state's "academic performance index," San Diego's gains from 2002 to 2004 were smaller than those recorded by school districts in Santa Ana, Fresno, San Bernardino, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Garden Grove, San Francisco, Oakland, and Sacramento. San Diego had higher scores than most of these districts, but the other districts made greater gains.

31 Sheila Byrd, "San Diego City Schools: Creating a Standards-Based Curriculum for English Language Arts," unpublished ma.n.u.script, San Diego Review, 2004, Sheila Byrd, "San Diego City Schools: Creating a Standards-Based Curriculum for English Language Arts," unpublished ma.n.u.script, San Diego Review, 2004, http://old.sandi.net/events/sdreview/eng_math_sci_cirricula.pdf.

32 Byrd, e-mail to author, June 14, 2006. Byrd, e-mail to author, June 14, 2006.

33 San Diego Education a.s.sociation, "Vote of Confidence Survey Results," June 20, 2001. A copy of the survey was provided to the author by Camille Zombro of the SDEA. San Diego Education a.s.sociation, "Vote of Confidence Survey Results," June 20, 2001. A copy of the survey was provided to the author by Camille Zombro of the SDEA.

34 Author's conversation with Marty Batcheler, LCSW, Kaiser Permanente, January 31, 2007. Author's conversation with Marty Batcheler, LCSW, Kaiser Permanente, January 31, 2007.

35 Carl A. Cohn, "Empowering Those at the Bottom Beats Punishing Them from the Top," Carl A. Cohn, "Empowering Those at the Bottom Beats Punishing Them from the Top," Education Week Education Week, April 25, 2007.

36 Anthony S. Bryk and Barbara Schneider, Anthony S. Bryk and Barbara Schneider, Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002), 123. (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2002), 123.

CHAPTER FIVE.

1 Michael Bloomberg, "Our Children Deserve Better," campaign doc.u.ment, June 11, 2001 (downloaded June 29, 2003, from a Web site [mikefor Michael Bloomberg, "Our Children Deserve Better," campaign doc.u.ment, June 11, 2001 (downloaded June 29, 2003, from a Web site [mikefor mayor.org] that has since been closed).

2 Diane Ravitch, "A History of Public School Governance in New York City," in Diane Ravitch, "A History of Public School Governance in New York City," in When Mayors Take Charge: School Governance in the City When Mayors Take Charge: School Governance in the City, ed. Joseph P. Viteritti (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Inst.i.tution Press, 2009), 171-186.

3 Javier C. Hernandez, "In Debate Over Schools, Panel Is No Threat to the Mayor's Grip," Javier C. Hernandez, "In Debate Over Schools, Panel Is No Threat to the Mayor's Grip," New York Times New York Times, April 23, 2009.

4 Diane Ravitch, Diane Ravitch, The Great School Wars: New York City, 1805-1973 The Great School Wars: New York City, 1805-1973 (New York: Basic Books, 1974), 92-99. (New York: Basic Books, 1974), 92-99.

5 Abby Goodnough, "Schools Chief Is Soaking Up Advice in San Diego," Abby Goodnough, "Schools Chief Is Soaking Up Advice in San Diego," New York Times New York Times, August 14, 2002.

6 Mike France, "Can Business Save New York Schools?" Mike France, "Can Business Save New York Schools?" BusinessWeek BusinessWeek, June 9, 2003; Elissa Gootman and David M. Herszenhorn, "Consultants Draw Fire in Bus Woes," New York Times New York Times, February 3, 2007.

7 James Traub, "New York's New Approach," James Traub, "New York's New Approach," New York Times New York Times, August 3, 2003; Deidre McFadyen, "Educators in Region 4: Don't Stop Us from Teaching Our Kids," New York Teacher New York Teacher, January 18, 2005.

8 As leader of General Electric, Welch was known for his tough, uncompromising att.i.tude toward employees. See Thomas F. O'Boyle, As leader of General Electric, Welch was known for his tough, uncompromising att.i.tude toward employees. See Thomas F. O'Boyle, At Any Cost: Jack Welch, General Electric, and the Pursuit of Profit At Any Cost: Jack Welch, General Electric, and the Pursuit of Profit (New York: Knopf, 1998), 72-76; Mary Hoffman, "Jack Welch Is My Daddy," ICE-UFT, March 8, 2005, (New York: Knopf, 1998), 72-76; Mary Hoffman, "Jack Welch Is My Daddy," ICE-UFT, March 8, 2005, http://ice-uft.org/daddy.htm; Geoff Colvin, "The CEO Educator," Fortune Fortune, October 1, 2009 (online version).

9 David M. Herszenhorn, "Not So Long Out of School, Yet Running the System," David M. Herszenhorn, "Not So Long Out of School, Yet Running the System," New York Times New York Times, March 25, 2004.

10 Deidre McFadyen, "Trouble in the Workshop," Deidre McFadyen, "Trouble in the Workshop," New York Teacher New York Teacher, February 17, 2005; Catherine Gewertz, "Grading the Mayor," Education Week Education Week, October 26, 2005; Sol Stern, "A Negative a.s.sessment: An Education Revolution That Never Was," Education Next Education Next 5, no. 4 (Fall 2005): 12-16. 5, no. 4 (Fall 2005): 12-16.

11 National Right to Read Foundation, "Selection of a Systematic Phonics Program for NYC Students," February 4, 2003, National Right to Read Foundation, "Selection of a Systematic Phonics Program for NYC Students," February 4, 2003, www.nrrf.org/phonics_nyc-2-4-03.htm; Sol Stern, "Bloomberg and Klein Rush In," City Journal City Journal, Spring 2003; Stern, "Tragedy Looms for Gotham's School Reform," City Journal City Journal, Autumn 2003; Open letter from "Education Faculty from Colleges and Universities across the New York City Area" to Michael Bloomberg, Joel Klein, and Diana Lam, re: " The New System-Wide Instructional Approach to Literacy and the Restructuring of Districts into Regions," February 10, 2003.

12 Carrie Melago and Erin Einhorn, "Bus Fiasco h.e.l.l on Wheels from Day 1," Carrie Melago and Erin Einhorn, "Bus Fiasco h.e.l.l on Wheels from Day 1," New York Daily News New York Daily News, February 2, 2007; Gootman and Herszenhorn, "Consultants Draw Fire in Bus Woes."

13 Erin Einhorn, "Education Job t.i.tles Stump Parents," Erin Einhorn, "Education Job t.i.tles Stump Parents," New York Daily News New York Daily News, December 26, 2007.

14 National Center for Education Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation's Report Card: Trial Urban District a.s.sessment, Science 2005 The Nation's Report Card: Trial Urban District a.s.sessment, Science 2005 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2006); Jennifer Medina, "City Schools Fail to Comply with State Rule on Arts Cla.s.ses," (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2006); Jennifer Medina, "City Schools Fail to Comply with State Rule on Arts Cla.s.ses," New York Times New York Times, March 7, 2008; Richard Kessler, Center for Arts Education, "Testimony to the Joint Meeting of the Committees (Senate Committee on Cultural Affairs, Tourism, Parks, and Recreation; a.s.sembly Committee on Tourism, Arts, and Sports Development) re: The Impact of Potential Budget Cuts to the Arts Industry, Tourism, and Living Museums," February 3, 2009, www.cae-nyc.org/potential_budget_cuts.

15 Diane Ravitch and Randi Weingarten, "Public Schools, Minus the Public," Diane Ravitch and Randi Weingarten, "Public Schools, Minus the Public," New York Times New York Times, March 18, 2004.

16 Jennifer Medina, "Albany Panel Signals It Won't Give the Mayor Carte Blanche on Schools," Jennifer Medina, "Albany Panel Signals It Won't Give the Mayor Carte Blanche on Schools," New York Times New York Times, May 6, 2009.

17 David M. Herszenhorn, "Bloomberg Wins on School Tests After Firing Foes," David M. Herszenhorn, "Bloomberg Wins on School Tests After Firing Foes," New York Times New York Times, March 16, 2004; New York Sun New York Sun, "Bloomberg's Finest Hour," March 17, 2004.

18 Clara Hemphill et al., Clara Hemphill et al., The New Marketplace: How Small-School Reforms and School Choice Have Reshaped New York City's High Schools The New Marketplace: How Small-School Reforms and School Choice Have Reshaped New York City's High Schools (New York: Center for New York City Affairs, The New School, 2009), 15. (New York: Center for New York City Affairs, The New School, 2009), 15.

19 New York City Department of Education, "NYC Results on the New York State 2006-2009 English Language Arts (ELA) Test (Grades 3-8)," New York City Department of Education, "NYC Results on the New York State 2006-2009 English Language Arts (ELA) Test (Grades 3-8)," http://schools.nyc.gov/accountability/Reports/Data/TestResults/2009/ELA/2006-2009_ELA_Citywide_ALL_Tested_web.xls; New York City Department of Education, "NYC Results on the New York State 2006-2009 Mathematics Test (Grades 3-8)," http://schools.nyc.gov/accountability/Reports/Data/TestResults/2009/Math/2006-2009_Math_ALL_TESTED_CITYWIDE.xls.

20 Meredith Kolodner, "City Students Are Pa.s.sing Standardized Tests Just by Guessing," Meredith Kolodner, "City Students Are Pa.s.sing Standardized Tests Just by Guessing," New York Daily News New York Daily News, August 11, 2009; Diana Senechal, "Guessing My Way to Promotion," GothamSchools GothamSchools, August 17, 2009, http://gothamschools.org/2009/08/17/guessing-my-way-to-promotion/; Javier C. Hernandez, "Botched Most Answers on New York State Math Test? You Still Pa.s.s," New York Times New York Times, September 14, 2009. For the conversion charts for the New York state tests in English and mathematics, see New York State Education Department, "English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematic [sic] a.s.sessment Results," www.emsc.nysed.gov/irts/ela-math/.

21 NYC Public School Parents, NYC Public School Parents, http://nycpublicschoolparents.blogspot.com.

22 Carl Campanile, "Gates' $4 Mil Lesson," Carl Campanile, "Gates' $4 Mil Lesson," New York Post New York Post, August 18, 2009.

23 United Federation of Teachers, "Teachers Want Chancellor Klein to Do a Better Job," press release, June 26, 2008, United Federation of Teachers, "Teachers Want Chancellor Klein to Do a Better Job," press release, June 26, 2008, www.uft.org/news/better_job/; Elissa Gootman, "Bloomberg Unveils Performance Pay for Teachers," New York Times New York Times, October 17, 2007; Randi Weingarten, address to the UFT Delegate a.s.sembly, June 24, 2009, www.uft.org/news/issues/speeches/resignation_address/.

24 David M. Herszenhorn, "Charter School Will Not Go Into School for the Gifted," David M. Herszenhorn, "Charter School Will Not Go Into School for the Gifted," New York Times New York Times, June 24, 2006.

25 New York City Department of Education, "Mayor Bloomberg and Chancellor Klein Announce Achievement of Major Milestone in the Creation of 100 Charter Schools," press release, February 10, 2009. New York City Department of Education, "Mayor Bloomberg and Chancellor Klein Announce Achievement of Major Milestone in the Creation of 100 Charter Schools," press release, February 10, 2009.

26 Vanessa Witenko, "Most Vulnerable Students Shut Out of Charter Schools," Vanessa Witenko, "Most Vulnerable Students Shut Out of Charter Schools," InsideSchools.org, May 19, 2009, http://insideschools.org/blog/2009/05/19/most-vulnerable-students-shut-out-of-charter-schools/.

27 Jennifer L. Jennings, "School Choice or Schools' Choice? Managing in an Era of Accountability," paper, Annual Meeting, American Sociological a.s.sociation, New York City, August 2007. Jennifer L. Jennings, "School Choice or Schools' Choice? Managing in an Era of Accountability," paper, Annual Meeting, American Sociological a.s.sociation, New York City, August 2007.

28 Hemphill et al., Hemphill et al., The New Marketplace The New Marketplace, 1-7.

29 Ibid., 58. Ibid., 58.

30 David M. Herszenhorn, "In Push for Small Schools, Other Schools Suffer," David M. Herszenhorn, "In Push for Small Schools, Other Schools Suffer," New York Times New York Times, January 14, 2005; Samuel G. Freedman, "Failings of One Brooklyn High School May Threaten a Neighbor's Success," New York Times New York Times, May 7, 2008; Hemphill et al., The New Marketplace The New Marketplace, 35-38.

31 Gootman, "Bloomberg Unveils Performance Pay for Teachers"; Gootman, "Teachers Agree to Bonus Pay Tied to Scores," Gootman, "Bloomberg Unveils Performance Pay for Teachers"; Gootman, "Teachers Agree to Bonus Pay Tied to Scores," New York Times New York Times, October 18, 2007; United Federation of Teachers, "55/25 Update," www.uft.org/member/money/financial/5525/.

32 Erin Einhorn, "Only in N.Y. Schools Can Get an 'A' and 'F,'" Erin Einhorn, "Only in N.Y. Schools Can Get an 'A' and 'F,'" New York Daily News New York Daily News, December 12, 2007; Leonie Haimson, "Testimony Before the City Council Education Committee on the DOE School Grades," December 10, 2007, http://nycpublicschoolparents.googlegroups.com/web/testimony%20school%20grades%2012%2007.doc; Jennifer Jennings, "In NYC, More F Schools than A Schools in Good Standing with NCLB," Eduwonkette blog, September 16, 2008, http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/eduwonkette/2008/09/in_nyc_more_f_schools_than_a_s_1.html.

33 New York City Department of Education, "Chancellor Klein Releases 2009 Progress Reports on Elementary, Middle, and K-8 Schools," press release, September 2, 2009; New York City Department of Education, "Chancellor Klein Releases 2009 Progress Reports on Elementary, Middle, and K-8 Schools," press release, September 2, 2009; New York Post New York Post, "An Avalanche of A's," September 4, 2009; New York Daily News New York Daily News, "Stupid Card Trick," September 4, 2009; Jennifer Medina, "As Many Schools Earn A's and B's, City Plans to Raise Standards," New York Times New York Times, September 4, 2009.

34 Jennifer Medina, "Teacher Bonuses Total $27 Million, Nearly Double Last Year's," Jennifer Medina, "Teacher Bonuses Total $27 Million, Nearly Double Last Year's," New York Times New York Times, September 5, 2009; Diane Ravitch, "Bloomberg's Bogus School Report Cards Destroy Real Progress," New York Daily News New York Daily News, September 9, 2009.

35 Hemphill et al., Hemphill et al., The New Marketplace The New Marketplace, 2, 11-12; Meredith Kolodner and Rachel Monahan, "Four Schools in Bottom 10 in State Tests Were Newly Opened," New York Daily News New York Daily News, July 13, 2009 (the headline said four, but the story identified five new schools in the bottom ten).

36 New York State Education Department, "English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematic [sic] a.s.sessment Results," New York State Education Department, "English Language Arts (ELA) and Mathematic [sic] a.s.sessment Results," www.emsc.nysed.gov/irts/ela-math/; for New York state and New York city scores from 1999-2006, see www.emsc.nysed.gov/irts/ela-math/2006/ela-06/Grade3-8ELA-2006.ppt and and www.emsc.nysed.gov/irts/ela-math/2006/math-06/Grade3-8Math.ppt. After the first two years of mayoral control, the Department of Education began adding the score gains of the year 2002-2003 to its own total, although these tests were administered before the mayor's reforms were implemented. When the 2002-2003 scores were released, department officials did not treat them as their own. See David M. Herszenhorn, "City English Scores in Statewide Testing Show Marked Gain," New York Times New York Times, May 21, 2003; Elissa Gootman, "Math Scores Rise Sharply Across State," New York Times New York Times, October 22, 2003. After 2007, the city's scores on state tests continued to rise, with the most extraordinary gains occurring in 2008-2009. Gains from 2006 to 2009 should be viewed with caution in light of the state education department's purposeful lowering of expectations during that period. The New York State Education Department changed the tests in 2006 when it extended them to grades 3-8 (previously only grades 4 and 8 were tested). Test scores from 1999-2005 are discontinuous with those from 2006 onward and should not be compared, but education officials regularly made comparisons across the years.

37 National Center for Education Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation's Report Card: Trial Urban District a.s.sessment, Mathematics 2007 The Nation's Report Card: Trial Urban District a.s.sessment, Mathematics 2007 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 50-51; National Center for Education Statistics, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 50-51; National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation's Report Card: Trial Urban District a.s.sessment, Reading 2007 The Nation's Report Card: Trial Urban District a.s.sessment, Reading 2007 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 50-51; Jennifer Medina, "Little Progress for City Schools on National Test," (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 50-51; Jennifer Medina, "Little Progress for City Schools on National Test," New York Times New York Times, November 16, 2007. Some experts questioned the fourth-grade math gains, because 25 percent of test takers were given accommodations (such as extra time), a proportion far larger than in any other city tested and double the proportion that received accommodations in New York City in 2003. Elizabeth Green, "N.Y. Gave the Most Breaks for School Exam," New York Sun New York Sun, November 21, 2007.

38 New York City Department of Education, "New York City Public School Students Make Gains on 2007 National a.s.sessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Tests," press release, November 15, 2007; Medina, "Little Progress for City Schools on National Test." New York City Department of Education, "New York City Public School Students Make Gains on 2007 National a.s.sessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Tests," press release, November 15, 2007; Medina, "Little Progress for City Schools on National Test."

39 Elissa Gootman and Sharona Coutts, "Lacking the Credits to Graduate, Some Students Learn a Shortcut," Elissa Gootman and Sharona Coutts, "Lacking the Credits to Graduate, Some Students Learn a Shortcut," New York Times New York Times, April 11, 2008; Javier C. Hernandez, "Students Still Sliding By, Critics Say," New York Times New York Times, July 13, 2009; Jennifer L. Jennings and Leonie Haimson, "Discharge and Graduation Rates," in NYC Schools Under Bloomberg and Klein: What Parents, Teachers, and Policymakers Need to Know NYC Schools Under Bloomberg and Klein: What Parents, Teachers, and Policymakers Need to Know, ed. Leonie Haimson and Ann Kjellberg (New York: Lulu, 2009), 77-85, www.lulu.com/content/paperback-book/nyc-schools-under-bloomberg-klein-what-parents-teachers-and-policymakers-need-to-know/7214189.

40 Javier C. Hernandez, "A New High School, with College Mixed In," Javier C. Hernandez, "A New High School, with College Mixed In," New York Times New York Times, March 19, 2009.

41 Elissa Gootman and Robert Gebeloff, "With New City Policy, Gifted Programs Shrink," Elissa Gootman and Robert Gebeloff, "With New City Policy, Gifted Programs Shrink," New York Times New York Times, October 30, 2008.

42 New York Times, New York Times, "New York State Test Scores," August 4, 2009, "New York State Test Scores," August 4, 2009, http://projects.nytimes.com/new-york-schools-test-scores/about.

43 David M. Herszenhorn, "A Gold Star for Schools: Overview," David M. Herszenhorn, "A Gold Star for Schools: Overview," New York Times New York Times, May 19, 2005; Sol Stern, "Gotham's Telltale Reading Tests," City Journal City Journal , Autumn 2006. , Autumn 2006.

44 Quoted in Michael Winerip, "Test Scores Up? Cheer (Don't a.n.a.lyze)," Quoted in Michael Winerip, "Test Scores Up? Cheer (Don't a.n.a.lyze)," New York Times New York Times, June 29, 2005.

45 James F. Brennan, "New York City Public School Improvement Before and After Mayoral Control," in James F. Brennan, "New York City Public School Improvement Before and After Mayoral Control," in NYC Schools Under Bloomberg and Klein: What Parents, Teachers, and Policymakers Need to Know NYC Schools Under Bloomberg and Klein: What Parents, Teachers, and Policymakers Need to Know, ed. Leonie Haimson and Ann Kjellberg, 105-113; Joel Klein, "Chancellor's Testimony Before City Council Education Committee on DOE's Preliminary Expense Budget," March 26, 2009, http://print.nycenet.edu/Offices/mediarelations/NewsandSpeeches/2008-2009/20090326_budget_testimony.htm; Nicole Gelinas, "NYC's Fiscal Future," New York Post New York Post, October 27, 2009.

CHAPTER SIX.

1 Ebony Ebony, "5 Questions for Marian Wright Edelman," January 2004.

2 Frederick M. Hess and Michael J. Petrilli, "The Politics of No Child Left Behind: Will the Coalition Hold?" Frederick M. Hess and Michael J. Petrilli, "The Politics of No Child Left Behind: Will the Coalition Hold?" Journal of Education Journal of Education 185, no. 3 (2004): 13-25. 185, no. 3 (2004): 13-25.

3 Walt Haney, "The Myth of the Texas Miracle in Education," Walt Haney, "The Myth of the Texas Miracle in Education," Education Policy a.n.a.lysis Archives Education Policy a.n.a.lysis Archives 8, no. 41 (August 19, 2000); Stephen P. Klein et al., "What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?" 8, no. 41 (August 19, 2000); Stephen P. Klein et al., "What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?" RAND Issue Paper IP-202 RAND Issue Paper IP-202, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, 2000, 2, 9-13.

4 For an excellent overview of the law, see Frederick M. Hess and Michael J. Petrilli, For an excellent overview of the law, see Frederick M. Hess and Michael J. Petrilli, No Child Left Behind Primer No Child Left Behind Primer (New York: Peter Lang, 2006). (New York: Peter Lang, 2006).

5 Frederick M. Hess and Chester E. Finn Jr., eds., Frederick M. Hess and Chester E. Finn Jr., eds., No Remedy Left Behind: Lessons from a Half-Decade of NCLB No Remedy Left Behind: Lessons from a Half-Decade of NCLB (Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 2007); for Betts's reference to choice in California, see 148-152. (Washington, D.C.: AEI Press, 2007); for Betts's reference to choice in California, see 148-152.

6 Julian Betts, "California: Does the Golden State Deserve a Gold Star?" in Julian Betts, "California: Does the Golden State Deserve a Gold Star?" in No Remedy Left Behind No Remedy Left Behind, 130.

7 Elissa Gootman, "Report a.s.sails Tutoring Firms in City Schools," Elissa Gootman, "Report a.s.sails Tutoring Firms in City Schools," New York Times New York Times, March 8, 2006.

8 The chief executive Officer of Kaplan (a major supplier of tests and test prep materials) said on a PBS program that his business had grown from annual revenues of $70 million in 1991 to $2 billion in 2007 "on the back of testing growth of all kinds." The other major testing companies-McGraw-Hill's CTB division, Pearson's Harcourt a.s.sessment, and Houghton Mifflin's Riverside unit-would not disclose their revenues. The same program said that tutoring was a $4 billion industry, whose growth was propelled by NCLB. "The New Business of Education," The chief executive Officer of Kaplan (a major supplier of tests and test prep materials) said on a PBS program that his business had grown from annual revenues of $70 million in 1991 to $2 billion in 2007 "on the back of testing growth of all kinds." The other major testing companies-McGraw-Hill's CTB division, Pearson's Harcourt a.s.sessment, and Houghton Mifflin's Riverside unit-would not disclose their revenues. The same program said that tutoring was a $4 billion industry, whose growth was propelled by NCLB. "The New Business of Education," Nightly Business Report Nightly Business Report, February 18, 2008, www.pbs.org/nbr/site/onair/transcripts/080218i/. See also Thomas Toch, Margins of Error: The Education Testing Industry in the No Child Left Behind Era Margins of Error: The Education Testing Industry in the No Child Left Behind Era (Washington, D.C.: Education Sector, 2006); Karla Sc.o.o.n Reid, "Federal Law Spurs Private Companies to Market Tutoring," (Washington, D.C.: Education Sector, 2006); Karla Sc.o.o.n Reid, "Federal Law Spurs Private Companies to Market Tutoring," Education Week Education Week, December 8, 2004.

9 National Center for Education Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007 The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 9, 27. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 9, 27.

10 Margaret A. Spellings, editorial, Margaret A. Spellings, editorial, Forbes.com, January 23, 2008, www.forbes.com/2008/01/22/solutions-education-spellings-oped-cx_dor_0123spellings.html; Andrew Dean Ho, "The Problem with 'Proficiency': Limitations of Statistics and Policy Under No Child Left Behind," Educational Educational Limitations of Statistics and Policy Under No Child Left Behind," Educational Limitations of Statistics and Policy Under No Child Left Behind," Educational Researcher Researcher 37, no. 6 (2008): 351-360. 37, no. 6 (2008): 351-360.

11 Hess and Finn, Hess and Finn, No Remedy Left Behind No Remedy Left Behind, 327-328.

12 Ibid. Ibid.

13 David J. Hoff, "Schools Struggling to Meet Key Goal on Accountability," David J. Hoff, "Schools Struggling to Meet Key Goal on Accountability," Education Week Education Week, January 7, 2009.

14 National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional a.s.sistance, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional a.s.sistance, Turning Around Chronically Low-Performing Schools Turning Around Chronically Low-Performing Schools (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2008). (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2008).

15 Linda Jacobson, "NCLB Restructuring Found Ineffectual in California," Linda Jacobson, "NCLB Restructuring Found Ineffectual in California," Education Week Education Week, February 20, 2008; Caitlin Scott, Managing More than A Thousand Remodeling Projects: School Restructuring in California Managing More than A Thousand Remodeling Projects: School Restructuring in California (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2008). (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2008).

16 Caitlin Scott, Caitlin Scott, A Call to Restructure Restructuring: Lessons from the No Child Left Behind Act in Five States A Call to Restructure Restructuring: Lessons from the No Child Left Behind Act in Five States (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2008), 1-3. (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2008), 1-3.

17 Sam Dillon, "Under 'No Child' Law, Even Solid Schools Falter," Sam Dillon, "Under 'No Child' Law, Even Solid Schools Falter," New York Times New York Times, October 13, 2008.

18 National Science Foundation, "All Students Proficient on State Tests by 2014?" press release, September 25, 2008, National Science Foundation, "All Students Proficient on State Tests by 2014?" press release, September 25, 2008, www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=112312; M. J. Bryant et al., "School Performance Will Fail to Meet Legislated Benchmarks," Science Science 321, no. 5897 (September 26, 2008): 1781-1782. 321, no. 5897 (September 26, 2008): 1781-1782.

19 Sam Dillon, "Students Ace State Tests, but Earn D's from U.S.," Sam Dillon, "Students Ace State Tests, but Earn D's from U.S.," New York Times New York Times, November 26, 2005; National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007 The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007). See also Kevin Carey, "Hot Air: How States Inflate Their Educational Progress Under NCLB" (Washington, D.C.: Education Sector, 2006). (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007). See also Kevin Carey, "Hot Air: How States Inflate Their Educational Progress Under NCLB" (Washington, D.C.: Education Sector, 2006).

20 Chester E. Finn Jr. and Michael J. Petrilli, foreword to Chester E. Finn Jr. and Michael J. Petrilli, foreword to The Proficiency Illusion The Proficiency Illusion, by John Cronin et al. (Washington: D.C.: Thomas B. Fordham Inst.i.tute and Northwest Evaluation a.s.sociation, 2007), 3.

21 Ibid. Ibid.

22 Angela Montefinise, "Lost Lessons in Test-Prep Craze," Angela Montefinise, "Lost Lessons in Test-Prep Craze," New York Post New York Post, January 28, 2007.

23 Laurie Fox and Holly K. Hacker, "Dallas-Fort Worth Students Struggle with TAKS' Short-response Written Test," Laurie Fox and Holly K. Hacker, "Dallas-Fort Worth Students Struggle with TAKS' Short-response Written Test," Dallas Morning News Dallas Morning News, July 20, 2008.

24 Jennifer McMurrer, Jennifer McMurrer, Choices, Changes, and Challenges: Curriculum and Instruction in the NCLB Era Choices, Changes, and Challenges: Curriculum and Instruction in the NCLB Era (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2007), 1; McMurrer, (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2007), 1; McMurrer, Instructional Time in Elementary Schools: A Closer Look at Changes for Specific Subjects Instructional Time in Elementary Schools: A Closer Look at Changes for Specific Subjects (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2008), 2. (Washington, D.C.: Center on Education Policy, 2008), 2.

25 Linda Perlstein, Linda Perlstein, Tested: One American School Struggles to Make the Grade Tested: One American School Struggles to Make the Grade (New York: Henry Holt, 2007). (New York: Henry Holt, 2007).

26 The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007 The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007, 8, 28; National Center for Education Statistics, The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2007 The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2007 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 8, 24. See also Bruce Fuller et al., "Gauging Growth: How to Judge No Child Left Behind?" (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2007), 8, 24. See also Bruce Fuller et al., "Gauging Growth: How to Judge No Child Left Behind?" Educational Researcher Educational Researcher 36, no. 5 (2007): 268-278. 36, no. 5 (2007): 268-278.

27 National Center for Education Statistics, National Center for Education Statistics, Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National a.s.sessment of Educational Progress Achievement Gaps: How Black and White Students in Public Schools Perform in Mathematics and Reading on the National a.s.sessment of Educational Progress (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2009), 7, 29. (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2009), 7, 29.

28 The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007 The Nation's Report Card: Reading 2007, 9, 27; The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2007 The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2007, 9, 25.

CHAPTER SEVEN.

1 Milton Friedman, "The Role of Government in Education," in Milton Friedman, "The Role of Government in Education," in Economics and the Public Interest Economics and the Public Interest, ed. Robert A. Solo (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1955), 123-144.

2 Diane Ravitch, Diane Ravitch, The Troubled Crusade: American Education, 1945-1980 The Troubled Crusade: American Education, 1945-1980 (New York: Basic Books, 1983), 27-41; Paul Blanshard, (New York: Basic Books, 1983), 27-41; Paul Blanshard, American Freedom and Catholic Power American Freedom and Catholic Power (Boston: Beacon Press, 1949). (Boston: Beacon Press, 1949).

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