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"Military action is important to the nation-it is the ground of death and life, the path of survival and destruction, so it is imperative to examine it" p. 41.
"Speed is the most important in war," Epaminondas of Thebes.
Battle of Leuctra, 371 BCE.
Helmuth von Moltke (1800-1891). Geschichte des deutsch-franzsischen Krieges von 1870-1871. The Franco-German War of 1870-1871. Trans. Clara Bell and Henry W. Fischer. New York: H. Fertig, 1988. Reprint of the version published in New York by Harper in 1892.
Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831).Vom Kriege. Michael Howard and Peter Paret, Editors. On War. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976.
Theodor Heuss (1884-1963). Theodor Heuss ber Staat und Kirche.
Frankfurt/Main: P. Lang, 1986.
C. W. Groetsch. Tartaglia's Inverse Problem in a Resistive Medium, in The American Mathematical Monthly, 103:7, 1996, pp.
Roland Barthes. Leon, Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1978.
The book is based on the lecture delivered at the inauguration of the Chair of Literary Semiology at the Collge de France on January 7, 1977.
"But Language-the performance of a language system-is neither reactionary nor progressive; it is quite simply fascist, for fascism does not prevent speech, it compels speech."
Alan Mathison Turing (1913-1954). British mathematician, one of the inventors of the programmable computer. During World War 2, Turing worked at the British Foreign Office, helping crack the German secret military code.
William Aspray and Arthur Burks, Editors. Papers of John von Neumann on Computing and Computer Theory. Cambridge MA: MIT Press; Los Angeles: Tomash Publishers, 1987. Charles Babbage Inst.i.tute Reprint Series for the History of Computing, Vol. 12.
John Condry, TV: Live from the Battlefield, in IEEE Spectrum, September, 1991.
Regarding the role of imagery and how it effectively replaces the written word, the following example is relevant: An Israeli visiting Arizona talked to his daughter in Tel Aviv while simultaneously watching the news on the Cable News Network (CNN). The reporter stated that a Scud missile had been launched at Tel Aviv, and the father informed the daughter, who sought protection in a shelter. "This is what television has become since its initial adoption 40 years ago...The world is becoming a global village, as educator Marshall McLuhan predicted it would.
Imagery is its language" p. 47.
Darrell Bott. Maintaining Language Proficiency, in Military Intelligence, 21, 1995, p. 12.
Charles M. Herzfeld. Information Technology: A Retro- and Pro-spective. Lecture presented at the Battelle Information Technology Summit. Columbus OH, 10 August 1995. Published in Proceedings of the DTIC/Battelle Information Technology SummIT.
Linda Reinberg, In the Field: the Language of the Vietnam War, New York: Facts of File, 1991.
The strategic defense initiative (SDI) was focused upon developing anti-missile and anti-satellite technologies and programs. A multi-layered, multi-technology approach to ballistic missile defense (BMD) meant to intercept offensive nuclear weapons after they had been launched by aggressors. The system consisted of the so-called target acquisition (search and detection of an offensive object); tracking (determination of the trajectory of the offensive object); discrimination (distinguishing of missiles and warheads from decoys or chaff); interception (accurate pointing and firing to ensure destruction of the offensive object). The critical components are computer programs and the lasers designed to focus a beam on the target's surface, heating it to the point of structural failure.
The Pentagon. Critical Technologies Plan, March, 1990.
Restructuring the U.S. Military, a report by a joint task force of the Committee for National Security and The Defense Budget Project. Obviously, the post-Cold War momentum provided many arguments for new plans for a scaled down, but highly technological, defense. The new circ.u.mstances created by the end of the Cold War require strategies for conversion of industries that until recently depended entirely upon the needs and desires of the military.
The Interactive Future: Individual, Community, and Society in the Age of the Web
Elaine Morgan. Falling Apart: The Rise and Decline of Urban Civilisation. London: Souvenir Press, 1976.
David Clark. Urban Decline. London/New York: Routledge, 1989.
Katharine L. Bradbury. Urban Decline and the Future of American Cities. Washington DC: Brookings Inst.i.tution, 1982.
Hegel's theory of state derives from his philosophy of history.
Civil society affords individuals opportunities for freedom. But since the state is the final guarantor, it accordingly has priority over the individual; cf. Philosophy of Right, T.B.
Knox, Editor. London, 1973.
E.A. Wrigley and David Souden, Editors. Thomas Robert Malthus. An Essay On the Principle of Population, 1798, in The Works of Thomas Robert Malthus. London: W. Pickering, 1986.
"Population, when unchecked, increases in a geometrical ratio.
Subsistence increases only in an arithmetical ratio" (p. 9).
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). Philosopher of the French Enlightenment. In Du Contract Social, he stated the law of inverse proportion between population and political freedom (cf.
Book 3, chapter 1, Paris: Livre de Poche, 1978. Also in Social Contract. Essays by Locke, Hume, and Rousseau. Sir Ernest Barker, Editor. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976).
Bernard Rubin & a.s.sociates. Big Business and the Ma.s.s Media.
Lexington MA: Lexington Books, 1977.
Craig E. Aronoff, Editor. Business and the Media. Santa Monica CA: Goodyear Publishing Corp., 1979.
David Finn. The Business-Media Relationship: Countering Misconceptions and Distrust. New York: Amacom, 1981.
Observations made by media scholars give at least a quant.i.tative testimony to many facets of the business of media. Ed Shiller, in Managing the Media (Toronto: Bedford House Publishing Corp., 1989) states "The media are everywhere and they are interested in everything" (p. 13).
A. Kent MacDougall (Ninety Seconds to Tell It All. Big Business and the News Media, Homewood IL: Dow Jones-Irwin, 1981) observed that "To communicate with the American public, companies must first communicate with the media" (p. 43). Interestingly enough, they reach huge audiences by using the rent free public airwaves. Consequently, as the author shows, the news media shine by any measure of profitability. According to Forbes magazine's annual study of profits, broadcasting and publishing companies led all industry groups in return on stockholder's equity and capital in recent years. Specialized publications also keep track of the profitability of the media.
Study of Media and Markets, a service of Simmons Market Research Bureau, Inc., makes available standard marketing information.
Communications Industry Forecasts, brought out by Veronis, Suhler & a.s.so. of New York, gives a detailed financial status of the entire communication industry (radio, television, magazines, entertainment media, recorded music, advertising, promotion).
J.H. Ca.s.sing and S.L. Husted, Editors. Capital, Technology, and Labor in the New Global Economy. Washington DC: American Enterprise Inst.i.tute for Public Policy Research, 1988.
Raymond Vernon. Exploring the Global Economy: Emerging Issues in Trade and Investment. Cambridge: Center for International Affairs, Harvard University Press, 1985.
Stephen Gill. The Global Political Economy: Perspectives, Problems, and Policies. New York: Harvester, 1988.
Gene Grossman. Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy.
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991.
Facts for Action (periodical). Boston: Oxfam America, from 1982.
John Clark. For Richer or Poorer: An Oxfam Report on Western Connections with World Hunger. Oxford: Oxfam, 1986.
J.G. Donders, Editor. Bread Broken: An Action Report on the Food Crisis in Africa. Eldoret, Kenya: Gaba Publications, AMECEA Pastoral Inst.i.tute, 1984.
In his study Eighteenth Brumaire, (1852), Karl Marx described bureaucracy as a "semi-autonomous power standing partly above cla.s.s-divided society, exploiting all its members alike."
Harvey Wheeler. Democracy in a Revolutionary Era. Santa Barbara: Center for the Study of Democratic Inst.i.tutions, 1970.
Wheeler defineds bureaucracy as "a vast organism with an a.s.sortment of specialized, departmentalized tentacles for coping with the different kinds of reality it may encounter" (pp.