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LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell Part 47

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The file /etc/localtime /etc/localtime should be a symbolic link to the time zone configuration file appropriate for your locale. For example, in the central United States: should be a symbolic link to the time zone configuration file appropriate for your locale. For example, in the central United States:#lsl/etc/localtime lrwxrwxrwx1rootroot30Sep1213:56/etc/localtime ->/usr/share/zoneinfo/US/Central The command tzselect tzselect can be used to change your system's time zone. can be used to change your system's time zone.

Essential System Services Objective 108.1: Maintain System Time Refer to the previous section on localization and internationalization.

Objective 108.2: System Logging Syslog The syslog system displays and records messages describing system events.

The syslog program is made up of two processes: syslogd syslogd, which logs user-level events, and klogd klogd, which logs kernel events.

Messages can be placed on the console, in logfiles, and on the text screens of users.

Syslog is configured by /etc/syslog.conf /etc/syslog.conf in the form in the form facility facility.level action:facilityThe creator of the message, selected from among auth auth, authpriv authpriv, cron cron, daemon daemon, kern kern, lpr lpr, mail mail, mark mark, news news, syslog syslog, user user, or local0 local0 through through local7 local7.levelSpecifies a severity threshold beyond which messages are logged and is one of (from lowest to highest severity) debug debug, info info, notice notice, warning warning, err err, crit crit, alert alert, or emerg emerg. The special level none none disables a facility. disables a facility.actionThe destination for messages that correspond to a given selector. It can be a filename, @ @hostname, a comma-separated list of users, or an asterisk (meaning all logged-in users).

Together, facility.levels facility.levels comprise the comprise the message selector message selector.

Most syslog messages go to /var/log/messages /var/log/messages.

Logfile rotation Most system logfiles are rotated to expire old information and prevent disks from filling up.

logrotate accomplishes log rotation and is configured using accomplishes log rotation and is configured using /etc/logrotate.conf /etc/logrotate.conf.

Examining logfiles Files in /var/log /var/log (such as (such as messages messages) and elsewhere can be examined using utilities such as tail tail, less less, and grep grep.

Information in syslogd syslogd logfiles includes date, time, origin hostname, message sender, and descriptive text. logfiles includes date, time, origin hostname, message sender, and descriptive text.

To debug problems using logfile information, first look at the hostname and sender, and then at the message text.

Objective 108.3: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) Basics The most common MTAs on Linux are sendmail, postfix, qmail, and exim.

sendmail, being the oldest MTA, has influenced current MTAs greatly. The other three popular MTAs all have sendmail "compatibility programs" to enable them to act as drop-in replacements for sendmail.

The file /etc/aliases /etc/aliases stores aliases for inbound mail addresses; it can redirect mail to one or more users. stores aliases for inbound mail addresses; it can redirect mail to one or more users.

Whenever /etc/aliases /etc/aliases is modified, is modified, newaliases newaliases must be executed. must be executed.

Each user can forward his own mail using a .forward .forward file, containing the forwarding email address, in his home directory. file, containing the forwarding email address, in his home directory.

Outbound mail that is trapped due to a network or other problem will remain queued; it can be examined using the mailq mailq command. command.

Objective 108.4: Manage Printers and Printing CUPS The Common Unix Printing System (CUPS) is the current standard for printing on Linux.

The cupsd cupsd daemon handles print spooling. Configuration files are stored in daemon handles print spooling. Configuration files are stored in /etc/cups/ /etc/cups/, and configuration usually happens through a web interface accessed through http://localhost:631/.

CUPS maintains backward compatibility with lpd lpd.

CUPS supports printer configuration in the file /etc/printcap /etc/printcap for backward compatibility. for backward compatibility.

Legacy printing (lpd) Printers are a.s.signed to queues, which are managed by lpd lpd, the print daemon. lpd lpd listens for inbound print requests, forking a copy of itself for each active print queue. listens for inbound print requests, forking a copy of itself for each active print queue.

lpr submits jobs to print queues. submits jobs to print queues.

lpq queries and displays queue status. queries and displays queue status.

lprm allows jobs to be removed from print queues. allows jobs to be removed from print queues.

lpc allows root to administer queues; it has both interactive and command-line forms. allows root to administer queues; it has both interactive and command-line forms.

Filters translate data formats into a printer definition language.

Spool directories hold spooled job data.

/etc/printcap New printer definitions are added to /etc/printcap /etc/printcap:lp|ljet: :sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp: :mx#0: :sh: :lp=/dev/lp0: :if=/var/spool/lpd/lp/filter: :lf=/var/spool/lpd/lp/log: The lines in this example are defined as follows: lp|ljet:This parameter defines two alternate names for the printer, lp lp or or ljet ljet.sd=spool_directoryThis parameter specifies the spool directory, under /var/spool/lpd /var/spool/lpd.mx=max_sizeThe maximum size of a print job in blocks. Setting this to #0 #0 indicates no limit. indicates no limit.shSuppress header pages. Placing this attribute in printcap printcap sets it, eliminating the headers. sets it, eliminating the headers.lp=printer_deviceThe local printer device, such as a parallel port.if=input_filterThe input filter to be used. See CUPS filters CUPS filters for additional information. for additional information.lf=log_fileThe file where error messages are logged.

Networking Fundamentals Objective 109.1: Fundamentals of Internet Protocols Addressing and masks An address mask separates the network portion from the host portion of the 32-bit IP address.

Cla.s.s A addresses have 8 bits of network address and 24 bits of host address.

Cla.s.s B addresses have 16 bits of network address and 16 bits of host address.

Cla.s.s C addresses have 24 bits of network address and 8 bits of host address.

Subnets can be defined using the defined "cla.s.s" schemes or using a locally defined split of network/host bits.

The all-zero and all-ones addresses are reserved on all subnets for the network and broadcast addresses, respectively. This implies that the maximum number of hosts on a network with n n bits in the host portion of the address is 2 bits in the host portion of the address is 2n2. For example, a cla.s.s C network has 8 bits in the host portion. Therefore, it can have a maximum of 282=254 hosts.

Protocols TCP/IP is a name representing a larger suite of network protocols. Some network protocols maintain a constant connection, whereas others do not.

IP The Internet Protocol is the fundamental building block of the Internet. It is used by other protocols.

ICMP This connectionless messaging protocol uses IP. It is used for flow control, detection of unreachable destinations, redirecting routes, and checking remote hosts (the ping ping utility). utility).

UDP The User Datagram Protocol is a connectionless transport agent. It is used by applications such as DNS and NFS.

TCP The Transmission Control Protocol is a connection-oriented transport agent. It is used by applications such as FTP and Telnet.

PPP The Point-to-Point Protocol is used over serial lines, including modems.

TCP/IP services Inbound network requests to a host include a port number port number.

Ports are a.s.signed to specific programs. Definitions are stored in /etc/services /etc/services.

Ports 11023 are privileged ports, owned by superuser processes.

TCP/IP utilities ftp implements the File Transfer Protocol client for the exchange of files to and from remote hosts. implements the File Transfer Protocol client for the exchange of files to and from remote hosts.

The ssh ssh client program implements a secure sh.e.l.l session to a remote host. client program implements a secure sh.e.l.l session to a remote host.

A web browser, such as Firefox, implements an http http connection to a remote connection to a remote http http server. server.

ping sends ICMP echo requests to a remote host to verify functionality. sends ICMP echo requests to a remote host to verify functionality.

dig obtains information from DNS servers. obtains information from DNS servers.

traceroute attempts to display the route over which packets must travel to a remote host. attempts to display the route over which packets must travel to a remote host.

fwhois queries a queries a whois whois database to determine the owner of a domain or IP address. database to determine the owner of a domain or IP address.

Objective 109.2: Basic Network Configuration The ifconfig ifconfig command is used to both view information about an interface in addition to changing the network configuration of an interface. command is used to both view information about an interface in addition to changing the network configuration of an interface.

The program dhclient dhclient will query the local network for IP addressing information over will query the local network for IP addressing information over dhcp dhcp and use this information to configure the settings for an interface. and use this information to configure the settings for an interface.

The command route route will display the path that packets will take when they leave the system. It is also used to manually add routes. will display the path that packets will take when they leave the system. It is also used to manually add routes.

Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting Interfaces are configured through a number of configuration files.

/etc/hostname contains the a.s.signed hostname for the system. contains the a.s.signed hostname for the system.

/etc/networks sets up equivalence between addresses and names for entire networks. sets up equivalence between addresses and names for entire networks.

The host host command returns DNS information. command returns DNS information.

The hostname hostname, domainname domainname, and dnsdomainname dnsdomainname commands set or display the current host, domain, or node name. commands set or display the current host, domain, or node name.

The netstat netstat command displays network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships. command displays network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections, and multicast memberships.

Objective 109.4: Configuring Client Side DNS /etc/hosts contains static mappings between IP addresses and names. contains static mappings between IP addresses and names.

/etc/nsswitch.conf directs system library functions to specific nameserver methods such as local files, DNS, and NIS. directs system library functions to specific nameserver methods such as local files, DNS, and NIS.

/etc/host.conf controls name resolution for older libraries. controls name resolution for older libraries.

/etc/host.conf is rarely used and is replaced by is rarely used and is replaced by /etc/nsswitch.conf /etc/nsswitch.conf.

/etc/resolv.conf contains information to direct the resolver to DNS servers. contains information to direct the resolver to DNS servers.

Security Objective 110.1: Perform Security Administration Tasks find can perform searches for file attributes such as SUID using the can perform searches for file attributes such as SUID using the -perm -perm option. option.

The chage chage command is used to maintain pa.s.sword aging on user accounts. command is used to maintain pa.s.sword aging on user accounts.

The nmap nmap program can be used to port scan local or remote systems for open ports. program can be used to port scan local or remote systems for open ports.

The sudo sudo command is used to give elevated privileges to a defined set of users for a limited command set. The configuration file is command is used to give elevated privileges to a defined set of users for a limited command set. The configuration file is /etc/sudoers /etc/sudoers.

The ulimit ulimit command is used to view and modify limits placed on users. The superuser maintains user limits in the file command is used to view and modify limits placed on users. The superuser maintains user limits in the file /etc/security/limits.conf /etc/security/limits.conf.

Hard limits are limits that users cannot exceed, whereas soft limits are limits that users can exceed temporarily by calling the ulimit ulimit program. program.

Objective 110.2: Set Up Host Security TCP wrappers Configuring TCP wrappers (tcpd) using /etc/hosts.allow /etc/hosts.allow and and /etc/hosts.deny /etc/hosts.deny can enhance security for daemons controlled by can enhance security for daemons controlled by inetd inetd or or xinetd xinetd.

tcpd is often configured to deny access to all systems for all services (a blanket deny), and then specific systems are specified for legitimate access to services (limited allow). is often configured to deny access to all systems for all services (a blanket deny), and then specific systems are specified for legitimate access to services (limited allow).

tcpd logs using syslog, commonly to logs using syslog, commonly to /var/log/secure /var/log/secure.

Shadow pa.s.swords Enabling the use of shadow pa.s.swords shadow pa.s.swords can enhance local security by making encrypted pa.s.swords harder to steal. can enhance local security by making encrypted pa.s.swords harder to steal.

The use of shadow pa.s.swords causes the removal of pa.s.sword information from the publicly readable pa.s.swd pa.s.swd file and places it in file and places it in shadow shadow, readable only by root.

A similar system is implemented for shadow groups, using the gshadow gshadow file. file.

Objective 110.3: Securing Data with Encryption The best way to communicate securely between two Linux systems is via SSH. SSH can be run either as a command line, opening up a sh.e.l.l into another system, or as a wrapper around other TCP-based applications.

SSH supports multiple authentication schemes, including standard username/pa.s.sword and public/private key authentication.

The command ssh-keygen t dsa ssh-keygen t dsa will create a public/private keypair. The keys are stored as will create a public/private keypair. The keys are stored as ~/.ssh/id_dsa ~/.ssh/id_dsa (private key) and (private key) and ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub ~/.ssh/id_dsa.pub (public key). (public key).

Placing a copy of your public key in the file ~/.ssh/authorized_keys2 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys2 on a remote machine will allow you to perform pa.s.swordless, key-based authentication with that machine. on a remote machine will allow you to perform pa.s.swordless, key-based authentication with that machine.

The command gpg --gen-key gpg --gen-key will create a public/private key pair to use with the Gnu Privacy Guard (GPG). These keys will be stored in will create a public/private key pair to use with the Gnu Privacy Guard (GPG). These keys will be stored in ~/.gnupg/ ~/.gnupg/.

To encrypt a file with another user's public key, you must: Import the user's public key into your keyring: gpg --import bobskey.asc gpg --import bobskey.asc Use that key to encrypt a file: gpg e u "My Name" r "Bobs Name" /tmp/filename.txt gpg e u "My Name" r "Bobs Name" /tmp/filename.txt

Index Symbols ! (bang) no match, Addressing Addressing # (hash mark) root sh.e.l.l prompt, Conventions Used in This Book Conventions Used in This Book, Objective 1: Work on the Command Line Objective 1: Work on the Command Line $ (dollar sign) command subst.i.tution, Command subst.i.tution Command subst.i.tution $ (dollar sign) user prompt, Conventions Used in This Book Conventions Used in This Book, Objective 1: Work on the Command Line Objective 1: Work on the Command Line, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax $# variable, Configuration files Configuration files $? variable, Return values Return values * (asterisk) regex modifier, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax + (plus) regex modifier, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax - single dash character, Entering commands at the command prompt Entering commands at the command prompt, Entering command sequences Entering command sequences -- double dash character, Entering commands at the command prompt Entering commands at the command prompt, Examples Examples, Example 2 Example 2 . (period) shortcut, Examples Examples, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax /etc directory, Boot-time Kernel Parameters Boot-time Kernel Parameters < redirection="" operator,="" redirection="" redirection=""> redirection operator, Redirection Redirection >> redirection operator, Redirection Redirection ? (question mark) regex modifier, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax (backslash) escape, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax <> match word boundaries, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax ^ caret, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax | vertical line, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax ~ (tilde) shortcut, Examples Examples, Invoking vi Invoking vi, Configuration files Configuration files A access control, Linux Access Control Linux Access Control, The mode string The mode string, Access control Access control, Security with TCP_WRAPPERS Security with TCP_WRAPPERS, Configuration Configuration access logfile, The Access Logfile The Access Logfile access mode, Linux Access Control Linux Access Control, The mode string The mode string, Example 1 Example 1 access time, changing, Description Description accessibility, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility, Objective 106.3: Accessibility Objective 106.3: Accessibility action directive, Configuring syslogd Configuring syslogd addresses IP allocation, DHCP DHCP, Frequently used options Frequently used optionsmasks, Addressing and masks Addressing and masksnetwork, Network Addressing Network Addressing, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)in sed, Frequently used options Frequently used options, administrative tasks, Administrative Tasks (Topic 107) Administrative Tasks (Topic 107), Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization, Review questions Review questions, pa.s.swd and group pa.s.swd and group Advanced Package Tool (APT), Description Description aggregate functions, Aggregate Functions Aggregate Functions, Aggregate Functions Aggregate Functions aliases, An Overview of Sh.e.l.ls An Overview of Sh.e.l.ls, Aliases Aliases, .inputrc .inputrc, Example Example, Bash Bash alien, Description Description anacron, Administrative Tasks (Topic 107) Administrative Tasks (Topic 107) anchors, Description Description annex, Linux annex Linux annex Apache web server, Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process APT (Advanced Package Tool), Description Description apt-get, Description Description archives, creating/extracting, Description Description arguments, Entering commands at the command prompt Entering commands at the command prompt, Functions Functions ASCII mode, Frequently used commands Frequently used commands at facility, Objective 2: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs Objective 2: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs, Using at Using at, Using at Using at authentication rhosts, Example /etc/ssh/sshd_config file Example /etc/ssh/sshd_config file automate sysadmin tasks by scheduling jobs, Objective 2: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs Objective 2: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs, Controlling User Access to cron and at Controlling User Access to cron and at, Objective 107.2: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs Objective 107.2: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs automatic allocation, DHCP DHCP B backends, CUPS backends CUPS backends background, Sh.e.l.l Job Control Sh.e.l.l Job Control, Example 1 Example 1 backup schemes, Backup Backup bash (Bourne-Again Sh.e.l.l) basic scripts, Basic Bash Scripts Basic Bash Scripts, Mailing from scripts Mailing from scriptsbuilt-in commands, Abbreviated bash command reference Abbreviated bash command reference, Example Exampleconfiguration files, Configuration files Configuration files, Bash Bashoverview, The Bash Sh.e.l.l The Bash Sh.e.l.l, .inputrc .inputrcshared libraries, Example Examplesh.e.l.l variables, Objective 1: Work on the Command Line Objective 1: Work on the Command Linestandard I/O redirections for, Redirection Redirection .bashrc file, Configuration files Configuration files Basic Input/Output System (BIOS), BIOS BIOS, Using the /proc filesystem Using the /proc filesystem basic network configuration, Objective 2: Basic Network Configuration and Objective 4: Configuring Client Side DNS Objective 2: Basic Network Configuration and Objective 4: Configuring Client Side DNS, A Standard Linux Network Configuration A Standard Linux Network Configuration basic network troubleshooting, Basic Network Troubleshooting (Topic 109.3) Basic Network Troubleshooting (Topic 109.3), dig dig basic regular expression patterns, Example 1 Example 1 bg command, Description Description /bin directory, The root Filesystem The root Filesystem /bin versus /sbin, Example Example binary, Frequently used commands Frequently used commands binary files, Where's that binary? Where's that binary?

BIOS (Basic Input/Output System), BIOS BIOS, Using the /proc filesystem Using the /proc filesystem BLINUX, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility block devices, backing up, Description Description /boot directory, Boot-time Kernel Parameters Boot-time Kernel Parameters, The root Filesystem The root Filesystem boot loader, LILO LILO boot manager, Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102), Objective 2: Install a Boot Manager Objective 2: Install a Boot Manager, The GRUB configuration file The GRUB configuration file, LILO LILO boot time entering BIOS at, BIOS BIOSkernel parameters, Boot-time Kernel Parameters Boot-time Kernel Parametersmessages, Kernel boot-time messages Kernel boot-time messages bootable media types, Disks and boot devices Disks and boot devices, Booting from a USB device Booting from a USB device booting the system, Objective 2: Boot the System Objective 2: Boot the System, Reviewing system logs Reviewing system logs, Boot order Boot orderfrom USB device, Booting from a USB device Booting from a USB device BOOTP protocol, DHCP DHCP BounceKeys, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility Bourne, Stephen, Objective 1: Work on the Command Line Objective 1: Work on the Command Line Bourne-Again Sh.e.l.l (see bash) break command, Description Description BrLTTY, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility brute force attacks, Shadow Pa.s.swords Shadow Pa.s.swords BSD and System V interfaces, BSD and System V Interfaces BSD and System V Interfaces BSD syntax, Description Description bulk logins, Enabling bulk logins on multiple hosts for multiple users Enabling bulk logins on multiple hosts for multiple users Burrows-Wheeler block sorting, Description Description bzip2 command, Description Description, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands C C-sh.e.l.ls, Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment cancel command, Description Description case command, Description Description case, changing, Example 1 Example 1 cat command, Description Description chage, Description Description, Examples Examples, Objective 110.1: Perform Security Administration Tasks Objective 110.1: Perform Security Administration Tasks character sets, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax check-updates command, Checking for updates Checking for updates checking remote hosts, Protocols Protocols chgrp command, Description Description child processes, Processes Processes, Objective 1: Perform Security Administration Tasks Objective 1: Perform Security Administration Tasks chipset, video, Supported video hardware Supported video hardware chmod command, Applying commands recursively through a directory tree Applying commands recursively through a directory tree, Changing access modes Changing access modes chown command, Example 4 Example 4 CIDR (cla.s.sless inter-domain routing), Cla.s.sless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Cla.s.sless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) cla.s.s drivers, USB Drivers USB Drivers cla.s.ses, user, Linux Access Control Linux Access Control cla.s.sless inter-domain routing (CIDR), Cla.s.sless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Cla.s.sless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) clear command, Configuration files Configuration files client side DNS, Objective 2: Basic Network Configuration and Objective 4: Configuring Client Side DNS Objective 2: Basic Network Configuration and Objective 4: Configuring Client Side DNS, A Standard Linux Network Configuration A Standard Linux Network Configuration, Objective 109.4: Configuring Client Side DNS Objective 109.4: Configuring Client Side DNS client/server logging, Client/Server Logging Client/Server Logging clock, Date and time Date and time, NTP Concepts NTP Concepts, Examples Examples, The Hardware Clock The Hardware Clock coldplugging, Device Management Definitions Device Management Definitions command history and editing, Command History and Editing Command History and Editing, Applying commands recursively through a directory tree Applying commands recursively through a directory tree command line, GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103), Objective 1: Work on the Command Line Objective 1: Work on the Command Line, man mechanics man mechanics, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands, The interactive sh.e.l.l and sh.e.l.l variables The interactive sh.e.l.l and sh.e.l.l variables command separator, Entering command sequences Entering command sequences command subst.i.tution, Command History and Editing Command History and Editing, Command subst.i.tution Command subst.i.tution, Environment Environment commands recursive, Recursive execution Recursive executionsequencing, Entering command sequences Entering command sequencesuser and group management, User and Group Management Commands User and Group Management Commands, Description Description comments, Configuration files Configuration files common code, Accessing a MySQL Server Accessing a MySQL Server compressing files, Description Description, Description Description concatenation, Description Description configuration files, LILO LILO, An Overview of Sh.e.l.ls An Overview of Sh.e.l.ls, Configuration files Configuration files, Configuration files Configuration files configuring client side DNS, Objective 2: Basic Network Configuration and Objective 4: Configuring Client Side DNS Objective 2: Basic Network Configuration and Objective 4: Configuring Client Side DNS, A Standard Linux Network Configuration A Standard Linux Network Configuration, Objective 109.4: Configuring Client Side DNS Objective 109.4: Configuring Client Side DNS continue command, Description Description control characters, Description Description control mounting and unmounting of filesystems, Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104), Objective 3: Control Filesystem Mounting and Unmounting Objective 3: Control Filesystem Mounting and Unmounting, Example 2 Example 2, Managing the filesystem table Managing the filesystem table Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), Examples Examples cp command, Applying commands recursively through a directory tree Applying commands recursively through a directory tree, Description Description, , File and directory management commands File and directory management commands cpio command, Description Description, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands create and change hard and symbolic links, Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104), Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links, , Concepts Concepts create part.i.tions and filesystems, Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104), Objective 1: Create Part.i.tions and Filesystems Objective 1: Create Part.i.tions and Filesystems, Example Example, Disk drives and part.i.tions Disk drives and part.i.tions create, monitor, and kill processes, GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103), Objective 5: Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes Objective 5: Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes, Example 1 Example 1, Concepts Concepts cron facility, Administrative Tasks (Topic 107) Administrative Tasks (Topic 107), Using cron Using cron, Controlling User Access to cron and at Controlling User Access to cron and at, Logfile Rotation Logfile Rotation, Other SSH Tricks Other SSH Tricks, Using cron Using cron crond, Using cron Using cron, Using cron Using cron crontab, Using cron Using cron, Using cron Using cron cryptography, public-key, Example /etc/ssh/sshd_config file Example /etc/ssh/sshd_config file Ctrl-C, Signaling Active Processes Signaling Active Processes Ctrl-Z, Signaling Active Processes Signaling Active Processes, Sh.e.l.l Job Control Sh.e.l.l Job Control CUPS, CUPS CUPS, Example 3 Example 3, CUPS CUPS cups-config utility, Using the cups-config Utility for Debugging Using the cups-config Utility for Debugging cupsd, CUPS printing overview CUPS printing overview current working directory, Processes Processes curses system, Managing part.i.tions Managing part.i.tions customize and use the sh.e.l.l environment, Objective 1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment Objective 1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment, .inputrc .inputrc, Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment customize or write simple scripts, Objective 2: Customize or Write Simple Scripts Objective 2: Customize or Write Simple Scripts, Example Example, Objective 105.2: Customize or Write Simple Scripts Objective 105.2: Customize or Write Simple Scripts cut command, Description Description D D-Bus, Device Management Definitions Device Management Definitions daemons, Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process data modification, Datatypes Datatypes data sharing, Datatypes Datatypes databases, Database Overview Database Overview, Database Overview Database Overview datagram delivery service, Protocols Protocols datatypes, Database Overview Database Overview date settings, Date and time Date and time dd command, MBR MBR, Backup Backup, Description Description, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands, Example Example Debian package management, Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102), Objective 4: Use Debian Package Management Objective 4: Use Debian Package Management, Example Example, Commands Commands Debian-based systems, Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process, Objective 4: Use Debian Package Management Objective 4: Use Debian Package Management, Example Example debugging, Using the cups-config Utility for Debugging Using the cups-config Utility for Debugging default file descriptors, Standard I/O and Default File Descriptors Standard I/O and Default File Descriptors default gateway, Example 1 Example 1 default runlevel, Setting the Default Runlevel Setting the Default Runlevel default sh.e.l.l, User Accounts and the Pa.s.sword File User Accounts and the Pa.s.sword File DelayKeys, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility dereference, design a hard disk layout, Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102), Objective 1: Design a Hard Disk Layout Objective 1: Design a Hard Disk Layout, General Guidelines General Guidelines, Objective 102.1: Design Hard Disk Layout Objective 102.1: Design Hard Disk Layout desktop environments, An Overview of X An Overview of X destination, file versus directory, Example 2 Example 2 detecting unreachable destinations, Protocols Protocols determine and configure hardware settings, Objective 1: Determine and Configure Hardware Settings Objective 1: Determine and Configure Hardware Settings, Device Management Definitions Device Management Definitions, PC BIOS PC BIOS /dev directory, Boot-time Kernel Parameters Boot-time Kernel Parameters, The root Filesystem The root Filesystem device drivers, USB Drivers USB Drivers device files, Objective 4: Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects Objective 4: Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects, Disk Drives Under Linux Disk Drives Under Linux device management definitions, Device Management Definitions Device Management Definitions df command, Monitoring Free Disk s.p.a.ce and Inodes Monitoring Free Disk s.p.a.ce and Inodes, Frequently used options Frequently used options DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol), DHCP DHCP, Frequently used options Frequently used options dhcpd command, dhcpd dhcpd, Frequently used options Frequently used options dig command, Description Description, dig dig, dig dig, TCP/IP utilities TCP/IP utilities Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA), DSA and RSA Overview DSA and RSA Overview, Example Example directories, Filesystem Objects Filesystem Objects creating, Description Descriptionmoving/renaming, Description Descriptionremoving, Description Descriptionroot filesystem, The root filesystem and mount points The root filesystem and mount points, The root Filesystem The root Filesystem, Where's that binary? Where's that binary?

disk drives interfaces, Hard disk devices Hard disk devicesunder Linux, Disk Drives Under Linux Disk Drives Under Linuxparameters, Disks and boot devices Disks and boot devicespart.i.tioning, Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102), Limited disk s.p.a.ce Limited disk s.p.a.ce, Managing part.i.tions Managing part.i.tions, Disk drives and part.i.tions Disk drives and part.i.tions disk quotas, Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104), Objective 4: Set and View Disk Quotas Objective 4: Set and View Disk Quotas, Example Example, Quota types Quota types disk s.p.a.ce, Limited disk s.p.a.ce Limited disk s.p.a.ce, Monitoring Free Disk s.p.a.ce and Inodes Monitoring Free Disk s.p.a.ce and Inodes diskless workstations, Disks and boot devices Disks and boot devices display managers, The X Window System (Topic 106) The X Window System (Topic 106), Objective 2: Set Up a Display Manager Objective 2: Set Up a Display Manager, Switching display managers Switching display managers, Objective 106.2: Set Up a Display Manager Objective 106.2: Set Up a Display Manager distribution-specific tools, Distribution-specific tools Distribution-specific tools, Distribution-specific tools Distribution-specific tools dmesg command, Kernel boot-time messages Kernel boot-time messages dnsdomainname command, Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting domain names, Example Example domainname command, Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting dot-forward command, Configuration of Qmail Configuration of Qmail dotted quad, Networking Fundamentals (Topic 109.1) Networking Fundamentals (Topic 109.1) dpkg command, Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process, Managing Debian Packages Managing Debian Packages drives (see disk drives) DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm), DSA and RSA Overview DSA and RSA Overview, Example Example dselect, Description Description du command, Monitoring Disk Usage Monitoring Disk Usage, Frequently used options Frequently used options dump frequency, Managing the Filesystem Table Managing the Filesystem Table dumps, Kernel boot-time messages Kernel boot-time messages, Description Description, Description Description dynamic allocation, DHCP DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), DHCP DHCP, Frequently used options Frequently used options dynamically linked programs, Objective 3: Manage Shared Libraries Objective 3: Manage Shared Libraries E e2fsck command, Checking and Repairing Filesystems Checking and Repairing Filesystems echo command, Sh.e.l.l variable basics Sh.e.l.l variable basics, Examples Examples, Description Description editing commands, Frequently used options Frequently used options edquota command, Description Description egrep command, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax EHCI (Enhanced Host Controller Interface), USB Controllers USB Controllers Emacspeak, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility email, Objective 3: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) Basics Objective 3: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) Basics, Configuration of Exim Configuration of Exim emulation layer, SCSI, Disk Drives Under Linux Disk Drives Under Linux encryption, Encrypting a File Encrypting a File Enhanced Host Controller Interface (EHCI), USB Controllers USB Controllers env command, Sh.e.l.l variable basics Sh.e.l.l variable basics environment variables, Sh.e.l.l variable basics Sh.e.l.l variable basics, Processes Processes, An Overview of Sh.e.l.ls An Overview of Sh.e.l.ls, Sh.e.l.ls and environment variables Sh.e.l.ls and environment variables, Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization, Bash Bash environment, sh.e.l.l, Objective 1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment Objective 1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment, .inputrc .inputrc, The sh.e.l.l script's environment The sh.e.l.l script's environment, Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment, Environment Environment erase command, Removing packages Removing packages error detection/cla.s.sification, Return values Return values error logfile, The Error Logfile The Error Logfile essential system services, Essential System Services (Topics 108.1 and 108.2) Essential System Services (Topics 108.1 and 108.2), Examining Logfiles Examining Logfiles, An Overview of Printing An Overview of Printing, Using the cups-config Utility for Debugging Using the cups-config Utility for Debugging, Review Questions Review Questions, Objective 108.1: Maintain System Time Objective 108.1: Maintain System Time /etc directory, Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process, Managing the Filesystem Table Managing the Filesystem Table, Example 2 Example 2, The root Filesystem The root Filesystem Exam 101 format, LPI Exams LPI Examshighlighter's index, PC BIOS PC BIOS, Locating files Locating filesobjectives/topics, LPI Exams LPI Exams, Exam Preparation Exam Preparationphysical setting, LPI Exams LPI Examspractice test, Exam 101 Practice Test Exam 101 Practice Test, Answers Answerspreparation for, Exam Preparation Exam Preparationreview and exercises, Exam 101 Review Questions and Exercises Exam 101 Review Questions and Exercises, Exercises Exercises Exam 102 format, Exam 102 Overview Exam 102 Overviewhighlighter's index, Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment, Objective 110.3: Securing Data with Encryption Objective 110.3: Securing Data with Encryption.o.bjectives/topics, Exam Preparation Exam Preparationphysical setting, Exam 102 Overview Exam 102 Overviewpractice test, Exam 102 Practice Test Exam 102 Practice Test, Answers Answerspreparation for, Exam Preparation Exam Preparationreview and exercises, Exam 102 Review Questions and Exercises Exam 102 Review Questions and Exercises, Exercises Exercises exam preparation, Exam Preparation Exam Preparation executable files, Executable files Executable files execute command line instructions, GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103), Objective 1: Work on the Command Line Objective 1: Work on the Command Line, man mechanics man mechanics, The interactive sh.e.l.l and sh.e.l.l variables The interactive sh.e.l.l and sh.e.l.l variables execute permissions, Linux Access Control Linux Access Control exim, Objective 3: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) Basics Objective 3: Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) Basics, Configuration of Exim Configuration of Exim exit command, Description Description, Frequently used commands Frequently used commands expand command, Description Description export command, Sh.e.l.l variable basics Sh.e.l.l variable basics exporting keys, Export both a Public and Private Key Export both a Public and Private Key extended part.i.tions, Disk part.i.tions Disk part.i.tions, Disk drives and part.i.tions Disk drives and part.i.tions F facility directive, Configuring syslogd Configuring syslogd fastforward command, Configuration of Qmail Configuration of Qmail fdisk command, Description Description fg command, Description Description FHS (Filesystem Hierarchy Standard), Datatypes Datatypes, Where's that binary? Where's that binary?, Example Example, Review Questions Review Questions file command, Description Description, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands file descriptors, Standard I/O and Default File Descriptors Standard I/O and Default File Descriptors file globbing, Example 1 Example 1, File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing), File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing), Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax, Example 6 Example 6, File-naming wildcards File-naming wildcards file management, GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103), Objective 3: Perform Basic File Management Objective 3: Perform Basic File Management, File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing), Concepts Concepts file tests, File tests File tests file-naming wildcards, File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing), File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) files, Filesystem Objects Filesystem Objects appending to, Redirection Redirectioncreating, Redirection Redirectiondeleting, Description Descriptionediting using vi/vim, GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103), Subcommands Subcommandslocating, Locating Files Locating Files Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), Datatypes Datatypes, Where's that binary? Where's that binary?, Example Example, Review Questions Review Questions filesystems checking and repairing, Checking and Repairing Filesystems Checking and Repairing Filesystems, Frequently used options Frequently used optionscreating, Creating filesystems Creating filesystemsdefined, Objective 1: Create Part.i.tions and Filesystems Objective 1: Create Part.i.tions and Filesystemsdisk quotas, Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104), Objective 4: Set and View Disk Quotas Objective 4: Set and View Disk Quotas, Example Example, Quota types Quota typeshard links, Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Linksinodes, Inodes Inodes, Monitoring Free Disk s.p.a.ce and Inodes Monitoring Free Disk s.p.a.ce and Inodeslayouts, Superblock Superblock, Objective 7: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location Objective 7: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location, File Hierarchy Standard (FHS) File Hierarchy Standard (FHS)managing the table, Managing the Filesystem Table Managing the Filesystem Tablemodifying, Modifying a Filesystem Modifying a Filesystemmounting/unmounting, Mounting Filesystems Mounting Filesystems, Example 2 Example 2, Managing the filesystem table Managing the filesystem tableobjects, Filesystem Objects Filesystem Objects, Frequently used options Frequently used optionsreview questions/exercises, Review Questions Review Questionssymbolic links, Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Linkstests of, Description Descriptiontypes of, Filesystem types Filesystem types filters CUPS, CUPS filters CUPS filters, Example 1 Example 1printer, CUPS CUPS, CUPS CUPStext stream, GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103), Objective 2: Process Text Streams Using Filters Objective 2: Process Text Streams Using Filters, Using sed Using sed, The commands The commands, The stream editor, sed The stream editor, sed find command, Applying commands recursively through a directory tree Applying commands recursively through a directory tree, Description Description, , Description Description, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands, Objective 110.1: Perform Security Administration Tasks Objective 110.1: Perform Security Administration Tasks find system files and place files in the correct location, Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104), Objective 7: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location Objective 7: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location, Example Example, File Hierarchy Standard (FHS) File Hierarchy Standard (FHS) FireWire drivers, USB Hotplug USB Hotplug floppy disks, Disks and boot devices Disks and boot devices, GRUB device naming GRUB device naming flow control, Protocols Protocols fmt command, Description Description font installation, Installing fonts Installing fonts font path, X Fonts X Fonts for command, Description Description foreground, Sh.e.l.l Job Control Sh.e.l.l Job Control free command, Description Description freshen mode, Install/upgrade mode Install/upgrade mode fsck command, Description Description, Frequently used options Frequently used options FSSTND (Linux Filesystem Standard), Objective 7: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location Objective 7: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location ftp command, Description Description, TCP/IP utilities TCP/IP utilities fully qualified domain names, Example Example function command, Description Description functions, Functions Functions fundamentals of internet protocols, Networking Fundamentals (Topic 109.1) Networking Fundamentals (Topic 109.1), Example Example, Addressing and masks Addressing and masks fwhois command, TCP/IP utilities TCP/IP utilities G Gateway, Frequently used options and keywords Frequently used options and keywords GDM, Configuring GDM Configuring GDM Genmask, Frequently used options and keywords Frequently used options and keywords get command, Frequently used commands Frequently used commands getopts command, Description Description Ghostscript, CUPS filters CUPS filters global variables, Sh.e.l.ls and environment variables Sh.e.l.ls and environment variables globbing, File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing), File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing), Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax, Example 6 Example 6, File-naming wildcards File-naming wildcards GNOME, Configuring GDM Configuring GDM GNOME onscreen keyboard (GOK), Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility GNU and Unix commands command line, Objective 1: Work on the Command Line Objective 1: Work on the Command Line, man mechanics man mechanicscreate, monitor, and kill processes, Objective 5: Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes Objective 5: Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes, Example 1 Example 1highlighter's index, The interactive sh.e.l.l and sh.e.l.l variables The interactive sh.e.l.l and sh.e.l.l variablesmodify process execution priorities, Objective 6: Modify Process Execution Priorities Objective 6: Modify Process Execution Prioritiesperform basic file editing operations using vi/vim, GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103) GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 103)perform basic file management, Objective 3: Perform Basic File Management Objective 3: Perform Basic File Management, File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing) File-Naming Wildcards (File Globbing)process text streams using filters, Objective 2: Process Text Streams Using Filters Objective 2: Process Text Streams Using Filters, Example 2 Example 2review questions/exercises, Review Questions Review Questions, Exercises Exercisessearch text files using regular expressions, Objective 7: Search Text Files Using Regular Expressions Objective 7: Search Text Files Using Regular Expressions, Example 7 Example 7streams, pipes, and redirects, Objective 4: Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects Objective 4: Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects, Example Example GNU Privacy Guard (GPG), Configuring and Using GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) Configuring and Using GNU Privacy Guard (GPG), Troubleshooting Files in the ~/.gnupg/ Directory Troubleshooting Files in the ~/.gnupg/ Directory GOK (GNOME onscreen keyboard), Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility gpa.s.swd command, Description Description GPG (GNU Privacy Guard), Configuring and Using GNU Privacy Guard (GPG) Configuring and Using GNU Privacy Guard (GPG), Troubleshooting Files in the ~/.gnupg/ Directory Troubleshooting Files in the ~/.gnupg/ Directory grace period, Quota Limits Quota Limits grep command, Redirection Redirection, Objective 7: Search Text Files Using Regular Expressions Objective 7: Search Text Files Using Regular Expressions, Using grep Using grep, Examples Examples, Example 1 Example 1, Example 9 Example 9 group accounts, Objective 1: Manage User and Group Accounts and Related System Files Objective 1: Manage User and Group Accounts and Related System Files, Description Description group ID (GID), Processes Processes group quota limits, Quota Limits Quota Limits groupadd command, Description Description groupdel command, Description Description groupmod command, Description Description groups and ranges, Description Description GRUB, Single-User Mode Single-User Mode, GRUB GRUB, The GRUB configuration file The GRUB configuration file GTkeyboard, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility GUI versus command-line tools, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands gunzip command, Description Description, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands gzip command, Description Description, File and directory management commands File and directory management commands H handshaking, Protocols Protocols hard disk devices GRUB, Single-User Mode Single-User Mode, GRUB GRUB, The GRUB configuration file The GRUB configuration fileIDE, Disk Drives Under Linux Disk Drives Under LinuxSCSI, Hard disk devices Hard disk devices hard disk layout, Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102), Objective 1: Design a Hard Disk Layout Objective 1: Design a Hard Disk Layout, General Guidelines General Guidelines hard limits, Quota Limits Quota Limits, Example Example hard links, Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links hardware adding, USB Hotplug USB Hotplugdetermining and configuring settings, Objective 1: Determine and Configure Hardware Settings Objective 1: Determine and Configure Hardware Settings, Device Management Definitions Device Management Definitionsreporting, Reporting Your Hardware Reporting Your Hardware, Options Options hardware clock, The Hardware Clock The Hardware Clock head command, Description Description HID (human interface device), USB Devices USB Devices hierarchy, Filesystem Objects Filesystem Objects highlighter's index Exam 101, PC BIOS PC BIOS, Locating files Locating files.e.xam 102, Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment Objective 105.1: Customize and Use the Sh.e.l.l Environment, Objective 110.3: Securing Data with Encryption Objective 110.3: Securing Data with Encryption history command, Command History and Editing Command History and Editing history expansion, Command History and Editing Command History and Editing /home directory, The root Filesystem The root Filesystem host command, Description Description, Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting host controller drivers, USB Drivers USB Drivers host interface address calculation, Masks Masks host security, Objective 2: Set Up Host Security Objective 2: Set Up Host Security, Configuration Configuration, TCP wrappers TCP wrappers HostbasedAuthentication, Enabling bulk logins on multiple hosts for multiple users Enabling bulk logins on multiple hosts for multiple users hostname command, Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting Objective 109.3: Basic Network Troubleshooting hotplug devices, USB, USB Hotplug USB Hotplug hotplugging, Device Management Definitions Device Management Definitions http, TCP/IP utilities TCP/IP utilities httpd, Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process, Checking installed packages Checking installed packages, Examples Examples Huffman coding, Description Description human interface device (HID), USB Devices USB Devices hwclock command, The Hardware Clock The Hardware Clock I i.Link drivers, USB Hotplug USB Hotplug I/O addresses, Resource a.s.signments Resource a.s.signments ICMP, Protocols Protocols, Protocols Protocols iconv command, Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization IDE device files, Disk Drives Under Linux Disk Drives Under Linux, Disk part.i.tions Disk part.i.tions IEEE 1394, USB Hotplug USB Hotplug if command, Description Description Iface, Frequently used options and keywords Frequently used options and keywords ifconfig command, Description Description, Objective 109.2: Basic Network Configuration Objective 109.2: Basic Network Configuration inetd, The Super-Server The Super-Server, inetd syntax inetd syntax, Configuration Configuration, TCP wrappers TCP wrappers info command, Checking installed packages Checking installed packages inheritance, Configuration files Configuration files, The sh.e.l.l script's environment The sh.e.l.l script's environment init command, Single-User Mode Single-User Mode, Description Description init process, Objective 3: Change Runlevels and Shut Down or Reboot System Objective 3: Change Runlevels and Shut Down or Reboot System, Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process, Processes Processes, Description Description init.d, Why Links? Why Links?

inodes, Inodes Inodes, Pipes Pipes, Monitoring Free Disk s.p.a.ce and Inodes Monitoring Free Disk s.p.a.ce and Inodes, Example 2 Example 2, Concepts Concepts InputDevice, Distribution-specific tools Distribution-specific tools .inputrc, .inputrc .inputrc insmod command, Description Description install command, Installing packages Installing packages installation, Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) fonts, Installing fonts Installing fontsinstall/upgrade mode, Install/upgrade mode Install/upgrade modeX11, An Overview of X An Overview of X, Controlling X Applications with .Xresources Controlling X Applications with .Xresources, Objective 106.1: Install and Configure X11 Objective 106.1: Install and Configure X11with yum, Installing packages Installing packages interactive sh.e.l.l, The Interactive Sh.e.l.l The Interactive Sh.e.l.l, Entering command sequences Entering command sequences internal clock, Date and time Date and time, NTP Concepts NTP Concepts, Examples Examples internationalization, Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization, Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization, Objective 107.3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 107.3: Localization and Internationalization Internet Printing Protocol (IPP), CUPS CUPS Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) IP (Internet Protocol), Masks Masks, Protocols Protocols, Protocols Protocols IP address allocation, DHCP DHCP, Frequently used options Frequently used options IPv6 (Internet Protocol Version 6), Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) IrDA, USB Devices USB Devices J job control, Sh.e.l.l Job Control Sh.e.l.l Job Control jobs command, Sh.e.l.l Job Control Sh.e.l.l Job Control, Description Description jobs, scheduling, Objective 2: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs Objective 2: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs, Controlling User Access to cron and at Controlling User Access to cron and at join command, Description Description join fields, Description Description Jupiter speech system, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility K KDM, Configuring KDM Configuring KDM, Configuring KDM Configuring KDM kernel launching, Objective 2: Install a Boot Manager Objective 2: Install a Boot Managermodule configuration, Introduction to Kernel Module Configuration Introduction to Kernel Module Configuration, Reviewing system logs Reviewing system logsUSB support in, USB Drivers USB Drivers kernel parameters, Boot-time Kernel Parameters Boot-time Kernel Parameters key bindings, Command History and Editing Command History and Editing key generation, Description Description key pairs, Description Description, Generating a Key Pair Generating a Key Pair key server, Troubleshooting Files in the ~/.gnupg/ Directory Troubleshooting Files in the ~/.gnupg/ Directory keyboard settings, Objective 3: Accessibility Objective 3: Accessibility keyring, Importing a Public Key to a GPG Keyring Importing a Public Key to a GPG Keyring keys, public/private, Export both a Public and Private Key Export both a Public and Private Key, Objective 110.3: Securing Data with Encryption Objective 110.3: Securing Data with Encryption kill command, Processes Processes, Signaling Active Processes Signaling Active Processes, Description Description, Description Description killall command, Examples Examples killproc command, Examples Examples KNNname, Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process Overview of the /etc Directory Tree and the init Process L language test, Description Description launching the Linux kernel, Objective 2: Install a Boot Manager Objective 2: Install a Boot Manager layers, Protocols Protocols ldconfig command, Linking Shared Libraries Linking Shared Libraries ldd command, Shared Library Dependencies Shared Library Dependencies Learning the bash Sh.e.l.l (Newham), Abbreviated bash command reference Abbreviated bash command reference Learning the vi and Vim Editors (Robbins et al.), Objective 8: Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi Objective 8: Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi leases, DHCP, Leases Leases legacy printing, Legacy printing (lpd) Legacy printing (lpd) level directive, Configuring syslogd Configuring syslogd /lib directory, The root Filesystem The root Filesystem libraries, Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102), Objective 3: Manage Shared Libraries Objective 3: Manage Shared Libraries, Example 3 Example 3, Concepts Concepts lifetime, Processes Processes lilo command, Syntax Syntax LILO Linux Loader, Disks and boot devices Disks and boot devices, Boot-time Kernel Parameters Boot-time Kernel Parameters, LILO LILO, LILO locations LILO locations links finding, hard and symbolic, hard and symbolic, Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104) Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 104), Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links Objective 6: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links, , Concepts Conceptsmultiple objects, Inodes Inodespreserving, shared libraries, shared libraries, Linking Shared Libraries Linking Shared Libraries Linux, Preface Preface Linux installation and package management, Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102) Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 102), Review Questions Review Questions, Objective 102.1: Design Hard Disk Layout Objective 102.1: Design Hard Disk Layout Linux Loader (LILO), Disks and boot devices Disks and boot devices, Boot-time Kernel Parameters Boot-time Kernel Parameters, LILO LILO, LILO locations LILO locations Linux Professional Inst.i.tute (LPI), Preface Preface Linux Professional Inst.i.tute Certification (LPIC), The Linux Professional Inst.i.tute The Linux Professional Inst.i.tute list command, YUM Overview YUM Overview listing keys, Listing Keys Listing Keys literals, Regular Expression Syntax Regular Expression Syntax ln command, Description Description local variables, Sh.e.l.ls and environment variables Sh.e.l.ls and environment variables locale utility, Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization localization and internationalization, Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization, Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 3: Localization and Internationalization, Objective 107.3: Localization and Internationalization Objective 107.3: Localization and Internationalization locate command, Description Description location, ownership, and permissions, Location, ownership, and permissions Location, ownership, and permissions logfiles, Logfile Rotation Logfile Rotation, Examining Logfiles Examining Logfiles, Troubleshooting General Printing Problems Troubleshooting General Printing Problems, Examining logfiles Examining logfiles logging DHCP server daemon, Description Descriptionsyslog, Reviewing system logs Reviewing system logs, Syslog Syslog logical pages, Description Description logical part.i.tions, Disk part.i.tions Disk part.i.tions, Disk drives and part.i.tions Disk drives and part.i.tions Logical Volume Manager, The root filesystem and mount points The root filesystem and mount points logical volumes, Disk part.i.tions Disk part.i.tions logrotate utility, Logfile Rotation Logfile Rotation lowercase, Example 1 Example 1 lp, CUPS printing overview CUPS printing overview, Example 3 Example 3 lp command, Description Description lpadmin, CUPS printing overview CUPS printing overview lpadmin command, Description Description lpc, CUPS printing overview CUPS printing overview LPI, Preface Preface LPI Exam 101 (see Exam 101) LPI Exam 102 (see Exam 102) LPIC, The Linux Professional Inst.i.tute The Linux Professional Inst.i.tute lpq command, CUPS printing overview CUPS printing overview, Description Description lpr command, Description Description lprm command, CUPS printing overview CUPS printing overview, Description Description LPRng, LPRng LPRng lpstat command, Description Description ls command, Entering commands at the command prompt Entering commands at the command prompt, Applying commands recursively through a directory tree Applying commands recursively through a directory tree, Setting Up a Workgroup Directory Setting Up a Workgroup Directory, , File and directory management commands File and directory management commands, Frequently used commands Frequently used commands lsdev command, Description Description lsmod, Description Description, Description Description lsof command, Description

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LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell Part 47 summary

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