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66. a decision was made not to inform the public a decision was made not to inform the public: Weiss, "The Life and Death of Cosmos 954." Marked Secret, Not to be Released to Foreign Nationals, 7 pages, no date. Decla.s.sified 10/24/97.

67. "playing night baseball with the lights out" "playing night baseball with the lights out": Ibid., 2.

68. "It was extremely tense" "It was extremely tense": Interview with Richard Mingus.

69. NEST NEST: Secret, United States Atomic Energy Commission, No. 234505, Responsibility for Search and Rescue Operations, to M.E. Gates, Manager, Nevada Operations. November 19, 1974; see also Gates, "Nuclear Emergency Search Team," 2, www.nci.org.

70. "established within EG&G": Gates, "Nuclear Emergency Search Team," 2.

71. "s.p.a.ce age difficulty" "s.p.a.ce age difficulty": "Cosmos 954: An Ugly Death," Time Time magazine, February 6, 1978. magazine, February 6, 1978.

316 would be panic like in would be panic like in The War of the Worlds: The War of the Worlds: Interview with Richard Mingus. Interview with Richard Mingus.

72. meant to look like bakery vans meant to look like bakery vans: Interview with Troy Wade.

73. Troy Wade was the lead federal official Troy Wade was the lead federal official: Note that Mahlon Gates, who auth.o.r.ed Operation Morning Light Operation Morning Light and put together NEST, was the senior U.S. government representative on the project and also the head of DOE Nevada Operations but did not have an active role in the boots-on-the-ground operation. and put together NEST, was the senior U.S. government representative on the project and also the head of DOE Nevada Operations but did not have an active role in the boots-on-the-ground operation.

74. high above was an Air Force U-2 high above was an Air Force U-2: Weiss, "The Life and Death of Cosmos 954," 3.

75. somewhere on America's East Coast somewhere on America's East Coast: Time Time magazine reported, "The craft crashed into the atmosphere over a remote Canadian wilderness area last week, apparently emitting strong radiation. American s.p.a.ce scientists admitted that if the satellite had failed one pa.s.s later in its decaying orbit, it would have plunged toward Earth near New York City-at the height of the morning rush hour." magazine reported, "The craft crashed into the atmosphere over a remote Canadian wilderness area last week, apparently emitting strong radiation. American s.p.a.ce scientists admitted that if the satellite had failed one pa.s.s later in its decaying orbit, it would have plunged toward Earth near New York City-at the height of the morning rush hour."

Chapter Nineteen: The Lunar-Landing Conspiracy and Other Legends of Area 51 Interviews: Buzz Aldrin, Colonel Slater, Ernie Williams, Richard Mingus, Michael Schratt, Bill Irvine, James Oberg 1. July 20, 1969 July 20, 1969: For details regarding Apollo 11, "Humankind's first steps on the lunar surface," http://nasa.gov; for transcripts of the first lunar landing, visit "Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Journal," by Eric M. Jones, http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.landing.html.

2. Armstrong's hundreds of hours flying Armstrong's hundreds of hours flying: Jenkins, Hypersonics before the Shuttle, Hypersonics before the Shuttle, appendix 9. appendix 9.

3. astronauts visited the Nevada Test Site astronauts visited the Nevada Test Site: NASA, Appendix E. Geology Field Exercises: Early Training, Field Training Schedule for the first 3 Groups of Astronauts (29), 3, Feb 1718 & 2425, 1965 & March 34, 1965. "The trip provided an opportunity to examine in detail the craters and ejecta formed by detonation of subsurface nuclear devices in lavas and unconsolidated sediments"; USGS Open-File Report 2005-1190, Table 1, "Geologic field-training of NASA Astronauts between January 1963 and November 1972."

4. Ernie Williams was their guide Ernie Williams was their guide: Interview with Ernie Williams.

5. first water well first water well: Interviews with T. D. Barnes, Colonel Slater, Ernie Williams.

6. astronauts arrived with a lunar rover vehicle astronauts arrived with a lunar rover vehicle: Gerald G. Schaber, "A Chronology of Activities from Conception through the End of Project Apollo (1960-1973)," U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Astrogeology.

7. by-products of underground bomb tests by-products of underground bomb tests: "The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions," #69043 Congress of the United States, Office of Technology a.s.sessment, 32.

8. astronauts twice referred to astronauts twice referred to: DOE/NV 772 REV 1, "Apollo Astronauts Train at the Nevada Test Site," 2. The mission commentary voice transmissions can be downloaded at http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/mission_trans/apollo17.htm.

9. hearing this comparison was a beautiful moment hearing this comparison was a beautiful moment: Interview with Ernie Williams.

10. Just two months after Armstrong and Aldrin returned Just two months after Armstrong and Aldrin returned: Author interview with James Oberg, and from a chapter in his book UFOs and Outer s.p.a.ce Mysteries. UFOs and Outer s.p.a.ce Mysteries. In addition to being an aeros.p.a.ce historian and leading debunker of lunar-landing and UFO-on-the-moon conspiracies, Oberg spent his career as a rocket scientist working for NASA contractors, including at Mission Control in Houston, Texas. In addition to being an aeros.p.a.ce historian and leading debunker of lunar-landing and UFO-on-the-moon conspiracies, Oberg spent his career as a rocket scientist working for NASA contractors, including at Mission Control in Houston, Texas.

11. moon being a base for aliens and UFOs moon being a base for aliens and UFOs: Interview with James Oberg.

12. Spielberg said in a 1978 interview Spielberg said in a 1978 interview: Matthew Alford, "Steven Spielberg," Cinema Papers, Cinema Papers, 1978. 1978.

13. With these three questions With these three questions: The answers, presented by a popular Web site dedicated to debunking the moon-hoax theory, are: Q: How can the American flag flutter when there is no wind on the moon? A: The movement comes from the twisting motion of the pole. Q: Why can't the stars be seen in the moon photographs? A: There are plenty of Apollo photos released by NASA in which you can see stars. Q: Why is there no blast crater where Apollo's landing vehicle landed? A: The moon's surface is covered by a rocky material called lunar regolith, which responds to blast pressure similar to solid rock; http://www.braeunig.us/s.p.a.ce/hoax.htm.

14. he experienced "an intuitive feeling" he experienced "an intuitive feeling": Fox Television broadcast, "Conspiracy Theory: Did We Land on the Moon?" February 15, 2001.

15. the the Today Today show show: A transcript of Kaysing's interview with Katie Couric, cohost of the Today Today show, which aired on NBC, August 8, 2001, can be read online at Global Security. show, which aired on NBC, August 8, 2001, can be read online at Global Security.

16. canceled the book canceled the book: Dr. David Whitehouse, "NASA Pulls Moon Hoax Book," BBC News, November 8, 2002.

17. CIA admitted it had been running mind-control programs CIA admitted it had been running mind-control programs: Marks, The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate," The Search for the "Manchurian Candidate," 211. During the 1977 Senate hearings, CIA director Stansfield Turner summed up some of MKULTRA's eleven-year legacy: "The program contracted out work to 80 inst.i.tutions, which included 44 colleges of universities, 15 research facilities or private companies, 12 hospitals or clinics, and 3 penal inst.i.tutions." 211. During the 1977 Senate hearings, CIA director Stansfield Turner summed up some of MKULTRA's eleven-year legacy: "The program contracted out work to 80 inst.i.tutions, which included 44 colleges of universities, 15 research facilities or private companies, 12 hospitals or clinics, and 3 penal inst.i.tutions."

18. 58,193 Americans were killed trying 58,193 Americans were killed trying: The National Archives, Statistical information about casualties of the Vietnam War, ARC ID: 306742.

19. Great Moon Hoax Great Moon Hoax: Goodman, The Sun and the Moon, The Sun and the Moon, 12. 12.

20. Buzz Aldrin, the second man on the moon Buzz Aldrin, the second man on the moon: This section is based on my interview with Buzz Aldrin, and also from chapter 20 in his book Magnificent Desolation, Magnificent Desolation, which addresses the event and is called "A Blow Heard Around the World," 33246 (galley copy). which addresses the event and is called "A Blow Heard Around the World," 33246 (galley copy).

21. 25 percent of the people interviewed 25 percent of the people interviewed: Brandon Griggs, "Could Moon Landings Have Been Faked? Some Still Think So," CNN, July 17, 2009. Griggs noted that a "Google search this week for 'Apollo moon landing hoax' yielded more than 1.5 billion results."

22. involve captured aliens and UFOs involve captured aliens and UFOs: AboveTopSecret.com.

23. "The tunnels were dug by a nuclear-powered drill": Interview with Michael Schratt.

24. N-tunnels, P-tunnels, and T-tunnels N-tunnels, P-tunnels, and T-tunnels: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology a.s.sessment, The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions. The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions.

25. "deactivated," according to the Department of Energy "deactivated," according to the Department of Energy: Michael R. Williams, "Ground Test Facility for Propulsion and Power Modes of Nuclear Engine Operation," 4.

26. the revelation of the Greenbrier bunker the revelation of the Greenbrier bunker: Ted Gup, "The Ultimate Congressional Hideaway," Washington Post, Washington Post, May 31, 1992. May 31, 1992.

27. "Secrecy, denying knowledge of the existence": KCET American Experience, "Race for the Superbomb," interview with Paul Fritz Bugas, former on-site superintendent, the Greenbrier bunker.

28. on average, twelve months on average, twelve months: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology a.s.sessment, The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions, The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions, 18. 18.

29. at least sixty-seven nuclear bombs at least sixty-seven nuclear bombs: U.S. Department of Energy, United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, 15. 15.

30. Piledriver experiments studied survivability Piledriver experiments studied survivability: Cherry and Rabb, "Piledriver Drilling," UCRL-ID-126150, August 9, 1967.

31. "to destroy enemy targets [such as] missile silos": Operation Hardtack II, Defense Nuclear Agency, 3 December 1982; interview with DOE officials during my tour of the Nevada Test Site, October 7, 2009.

32. guarding many of the nuclear bombs guarding many of the nuclear bombs: Interview with Richard Mingus.

33. After the test ban, the Pentagon reversed its policy After the test ban, the Pentagon reversed its policy: U.S. Congress, Office of Technology a.s.sessment, The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions, The Containment of Underground Nuclear Explosions, 21. 21.

34. has changed its name four times has changed its name four times: See NNSA Timeline, http://www.nnsa.energy.gov/aboutus/ourhistory/timeline. Notably, there is another agency that has changed its name four times, the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project (AFSWP), which, like the Atomic Energy Commission, also began as the Manhattan Project. On May 6, 1959, it changed its name to the Defense Atomic Support Agency (DASA); on July 1, 1971, it changed its name to the Defense Nuclear Agency; on June 26, 1996, it changed its name to the Defense Special Weapons Agency. Schwartz, Atomic Audit, Atomic Audit, 61. 61.

35. "mission is to advance technology and promote related innovation": Google DOE.gov and this statement is the subhead. Or go to http://www.energy.gov/.

36. formal beginning in 1908 formal beginning in 1908: Federal Bureau of Investigation Official Web site, Timeline of FBI History, 19001909.

37. Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko in a secret CIA prison Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko in a secret CIA prison: Edward Jay Epstein and Susana Duncan, "The War of the Moles," New York, New York, 2837. 2837.

38. His true allegiance remains the subject of debate His true allegiance remains the subject of debate: Walter Pincus, "Yuri I. Nosenko, KGB Agent Who Defected to the U.S.," Washington Post, Washington Post, August 27, 2008. In CIA doc.u.ments released decades later, Nosenko is quoted as forgiving the CIA for the harsh treatment, stating "while I regret my three years of incarceration, I have no bitterness and now understand how it could happen." Shortly before he died, CIA officials gave Nosenko a ceremonial U.S. flag from CIA director Michael Hayden. August 27, 2008. In CIA doc.u.ments released decades later, Nosenko is quoted as forgiving the CIA for the harsh treatment, stating "while I regret my three years of incarceration, I have no bitterness and now understand how it could happen." Shortly before he died, CIA officials gave Nosenko a ceremonial U.S. flag from CIA director Michael Hayden.

39. memorandum dated May 1, 1995 memorandum dated May 1, 1995: Memorandum to Members of the Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments, from Advisory Committee Staff, May 1, 1995, "Official Cla.s.sification Policy to Cover Up Embarra.s.sment." Clinton Staff Memo is marked "Draft, For Discusssion Purposes Only," and cites 1947 memo listed below.

40. "All doc.u.ments and correspondence": "Report of Meeting of Cla.s.sification Board During Week of September 8, 1947," Atomic Energy Commission.

41. "cause considerable concern to the Atomic Energy Commission insurance Branch": September 28, 1947, memorandum from J.C. Franklin, manager Oak Ridge Operations to Carroll L. Wilson, General Manager Re: Medical Policy, 23; located circa 1995 by Clinton staff.

42. "medical papers on human administration experiments done to date": Ibid.

43. "reworded or deleted" "reworded or deleted": October 8, 1947, Memorandum to Advisory Board on Medical and Biology Re: Medical Policy, 8; located circa 1995 by Clinton staff.

44. In 2011 there are an estimated 1.8 billion Internet users In 2011 there are an estimated 1.8 billion Internet users: According to Miniwatts Marketing Group.

45. Deny Ignorance Deny Ignorance: Interview with AboveTopSecret CEO Bill Irvine.

46. the New World Order conspiracy theory the New World Order conspiracy theory: Wikipedia has an interesting overview of New World conspiracy theories, with bibliography.

Chapter Twenty: From Camera Bays to Weapons Bays, the Air Force Takes Control Interviews: Richard Mingus, Ed Lovick, Bob Murphy, T. D. Barnes, Gene Poteat, Peter Merlin, Harry Martin, Millie Meierdierck, Dr. Wheelon, Joe Behne 1. most sensational near catastrophes most sensational near catastrophes: Interview with Richard Mingus. Interview with Joe Behne.

2. a mock helicopter attack a mock helicopter attack: The details of the mock helicopter attack remain cla.s.sified. Darwin Morgan, spokesman for the NNSA, Nevada Site Office, would neither confirm nor deny the event. Both Mingus and Behne were able to discuss this event with me because the details of the helicopter attack were only ever relayed to them secondhand. Their jobs had to do with the nuclear bomb going down the hole. In other words, while both men were privy to the security scare, neither man was ever officially briefed on the mock attack.

3. The bomb, one of eighteen The bomb, one of eighteen: U.S. Department of Energy, United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, United States Nuclear Tests, July 1945 through September 1992, 14. 14.

4. five-man security response team five-man security response team: Interview with Mingus. This is one of the rare security stories from the secret base. Mingus tells it because the procedure is now obsolete.

5. Quick conversation with Joe Behne Quick conversation with Joe Behne: Interview with Joe Behne.

6. With astounding lack of foresight, Wackenhut Security With astounding lack of foresight, Wackenhut Security: Interview with Richard Mingus. Interview with Joe Behne.

7. using slide rules and calculators using slide rules and calculators: Interview with Ed Lovick.

8. "roughly the size of a ball bearing": Interview with Lovick and specifically "based on 15GhHz radar, .08 wavelength."

9. The man in charge of engineering, fabrication, and a.s.sembly The man in charge of engineering, fabrication, and a.s.sembly: Interviews with Bob Murphy.

10. at Groom Lake to drop bombs at Groom Lake to drop bombs: Barnes points out that some bombs were dropped close in to the dry lake bed at Area 51.

11. to use a preexisting, little-known bombing range to use a preexisting, little-known bombing range: Johnson, "Tonopah Test Range Outpost of Sandia National Laboratories," Sandia Report SAND96-0375 UC-700 March 1996, U.S. DOE Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

12. the Chicago of the West the Chicago of the West: State Historic Preservation Office, Beatty, Center of the Gold Railroads, "Chicago of the West," Nevada Historical Marker 173.

13. "secret testing [that] could be conducted safely and securely" "secret testing [that] could be conducted safely and securely": Johnson, "Tonopah Test Range Outpost of Sandia National Laboratories," 8.

14. would quote Saint Paul of Tarsus would quote Saint Paul of Tarsus: Ibid., 9.

15. Operation Roller Coaster, three dirty bomb tests Operation Roller Coaster, three dirty bomb tests: Ibid., 47; Operation Roller Coaster Sites, TTR SAFER Plan, Section 2.0. Map here here; NVO-171 Environmental Plutonium on the Nevada Test Site and Environs, June 1977, 35.

16. construction for an F-117 Nighthawk support facility construction for an F-117 Nighthawk support facility: Interview with Peter Merlin.

17. grow their hair long and to grow beards grow their hair long and to grow beards: Interview with Richard Mingus, who lived there.

18. test flights of the F-117 test flights of the F-117: Crickmore, Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, 4. Major Al Whitley became the first operational pilot to fly the Nighthawk in October of that year. 4. Major Al Whitley became the first operational pilot to fly the Nighthawk in October of that year.

19. Lieutenant General Robert M. Bond Lieutenant General Robert M. Bond: U.S. Air Force official Web site, biography.

20. men like General James "Jimmy" Doolittle men like General James "Jimmy" Doolittle: Interview with Harry Martin.

21. "There was some debate about whether the general": Barnes had left Area 51 by this time; this is a secondhand story. Having been involved in the MiG program since its inception, Barnes was privy to information about Bond but was never formally briefed.

22. were the general's last words were the general's last words: Transcript reads: 10:17:50 a.m., Bond: "How far to the turn?" 10:17:53 a.m. Ground control: "Turn now, right 20." Bond responds with two clicks. At 10:18:02 a.m. Bond: "I'm out of control. I'm out of..." At 10:18:23 a.m. Bond: "I've got to get out, I'm out of control."

23. Fred Hoffman, a military writer Fred Hoffman, a military writer: Hoffman, "Allies Help Pentagon Obtain Soviet Arms," a.s.sociated Press, May 7, 1984.

24. at Area 51 and Area 52 for eleven years at Area 51 and Area 52 for eleven years: Johnson, "Tonopah Test Range Outpost of Sandia National Laboratories," 79. The first flight of Have Blue was December 1, 1977, by Bill Park at 7:00 p.m. as noted in Crickmore, Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk. Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk.

25. Code-named Aquiline Code-named Aquiline: Hank Meierdierck's personal papers; interview with Jim Freedman; interview with Millie Meierdierck, who had the only known mock-up of the drone sitting on the bar in her home.

26. original purpose of Aquiline original purpose of Aquiline: Interview with Gene Poteat.

27. Cold War Soviet hydrofoil named Ekranopian Cold War Soviet hydrofoil named Ekranopian: James May, "Riding the Caspian Sea Monster," BBC News BBC News magazine, September 27, 2008. magazine, September 27, 2008.

28. Jim Freedman to a.s.sist him on the Aquiline drone Jim Freedman to a.s.sist him on the Aquiline drone: Interview with Jim Freedman.

29. ninety-nine million dollars over budget ninety-nine million dollars over budget: Hank Meierdierck's personal papers.

30. Project Ornithopter Project Ornithopter: Richelson, Wizards of Langley, Wizards of Langley, 148. 148.

31. Project Insectothopter Project Insectothopter: Seen by the author at the CIA museum, located inside CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia.

32. "Acoustic Kitty": Richelson, Wizards of Langley, Wizards of Langley, 147. 147.

33. sensor drones to detect WMD signatures sensor drones to detect WMD signatures: Interview with Dr. Wheelon.

34. Early efforts had been made using U-2 pilots Early efforts had been made using U-2 pilots: Interview with Tony Bevacqua, who flew "sniffer" missions in U-2s for the U.S. Air Force. The Black Cat pilots flew some of these dangerous missions, per my interview with Colonel Slater.

35. Operation Tobasco, risked exposure Operation Tobasco, risked exposure: Richelson, Wizards of Langley, Wizards of Langley, 9394. 9394.

36. did considerable damage to the Agency's reputation did considerable damage to the Agency's reputation: Marks, Search for the "Manchurian Candidate," Search for the "Manchurian Candidate," 220. Marks's entire chapter 12, "The Search for Truth," is a particularly searing portrait of how the CIA was perceived during this time. 220. Marks's entire chapter 12, "The Search for Truth," is a particularly searing portrait of how the CIA was perceived during this time.

37. "probable biological warfare research": CIA Top Secret, Biological Warfare, USSR: Additional Rumors of an Accident at the Biological Warfare Inst.i.tute in Sverdlovsk. Dated October 15, 1979. Decla.s.sified 6/10/96.

38. h.e.l.lfire missiles h.e.l.lfire missiles: Lockheed makes the h.e.l.lfire, which is an acronym for its original design: helicopter-launched, fire-and-forget.

39. his name was Osama bin Laden his name was Osama bin Laden: Coll, Ghost Wars, Ghost Wars, 533: "While hovering over Tarnak Farm outside Kandahar, the Predator photographed a man who appeared to be bin Laden." 533: "While hovering over Tarnak Farm outside Kandahar, the Predator photographed a man who appeared to be bin Laden."

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