Grammatical Sketch of the Heve Language Part 4

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43. The prepositions that govern the genitive might with reason be called postpositions, since they follow the case; for Pedro Pedroque betzegnai, with you amo ma.


The adverbs are very many, and by them more especially is expressed the manner of walking, of sitting, of sounding, etc., and oftentimes the enunciation copies after the sense, as, cuusan, I sound; catzcatze cuusan, clattering sound.


45. Some of the interjections are these: Ari! and when repeated ari, ari! are those of one feeling pain; Asioma is of one that menaces, like, You will see! and Asma is like, I desire to see! Habesa matzi, Well, then! Ahene is exclaimed by one who recollects himself; Navehtzemne, Alas! Woe to me!


46. The conjunctions to the extent they can, will be treated of separately; for although the language of Indians is exact, there are difficulties to be encountered, and from those not brought up in their use, requiring special study.

47. The word _And_ is represented by aui, as, Nee aui nap, I and you, and also by vai placed afterward used in this way, Nee nap vai.

48. Whether the sentence consist of one or of two parts, this conjunction If is nowhere found, but the gerund in do or co is used; and in this manner should it be of a single part or an individual: If I do it well, I shall be content, hidenane endo, or enco, nanaceratze; when of two, thus: If I did it well, you will be content, hidena netzendo, or emco, nap nanaceratze: whence it may be seen that in the first pa.s.sage is put the nominative nee, having but one part, and in the second the dative or accusative netz, since another member comes in which is nap, you. These are other examples: If I should be well, I will go to see you, Nee hidena crado, oset eme teuhdontze, which is an expression of one proposition, for though two persons enter there the action is single: If I shall have worked well you will pay me, Nee hidena pananhriuhco, nap netz ovidetze, which is of two positions, the action being of two.

49. In the examples about to be given, it will be observed that _That_ is never used, whether it correspond to the quod or the ut of the Latin. Nee eme vitzan, nap hibe, I see that you are lax; Nee aguateran, Domincotze amo misa ea vitzaca, I know that you have not heard ma.s.s Sunday; where vitzaca or vitzacauh is pa.s.sive perfect, and the literal rendering is, I know, on Sunday your ma.s.s was not heard.

I desire that you may live here, Nee eme iuide cateo naquem, in which cateo is an active perfect participle, and the verb naquem, I desire, ever requires this construction. The verb oqueem, I command, is peculiar likewise in one respect: in order to say I command you that you work, Nee eme panauaoqueem is said; panauaoqueem being composed of two words, of which panauatze, I will work, is from panauan, work, the tze final being taken away and subst.i.tuted by oqueem.

50. The equivalent of _Because_, nanevari, can be thus shown. I become angry because you are lax, Nee zinauan, ne neuari nap hibeen: with the particle arede, which means because, it may be elegantly expressed, Nap hibeen, aredene zinauan, which, word for word, is, You are lax, for that I become angry. Here are other instances: Because I am sick I do not work, Nee ca panauan, naneuarine cocotzem; in another manner, Nee cocotzem, aredene ca panauan, or Nee no cocotzihdade ca panauan, which corresponds to this, I, because of my infirmity, do not work. I come, because you called me, Nee eue hasi, naneuari nap netz ouiqui.

Eue, signifying hither, is used because to the Indian ear, I came hither, is more euphonious than only I came. Nap netzouiqui, aredene hasi, I am glad, because you come to see me, Nee nanaceran, naneuari nap netzeue teuhdoniueren, or otherwise, Nap netz eue teuhdoniueren aredene nanaceran.

51. The equivalent of _Before_ is caque, the translation of which is not yet. Before you could come I was already here, Nap caque hasdo nee vinu iuide enitude, of which hasdo is the gerund of hasem, that part of speech being thus used with caque, when it signifies before, and is literally, You not arrived yet, already was I here. Another instance: Before you can go, you will pay me: Caquena dado, netz ovidetze; also, Before the wheat could be planted, it rained: Perilon caque etzih dauh, duqui.

52. _After_ is rendered likewise by the gerunds with the adverb vaar, after. After he had sinned, he was converted to G.o.d: Varuhruco vaar, Diosse vene are viranari, that is, having sinned afterward, etc.; and also it may be without vaar, as, After it had rained much, the river carried away the earth: Muic duco, bata guasta udari. Again: After the wheat had been cut, it got wet, and was lost: Pericon are tepunaricoua sanhruco nasortui.

53. _When_ may be rendered by heco, as, When you had come to see me, I had gone for wood: Hecona netz eue teuhdni, nee c.u.mandoniru. Another: When Christ had died, so much as was man died, and had not died so much as was G.o.d: Heco mucruco Cristo, are doremcade muqui, are Diosemeade ca muqui; where also mucruco is gerund, and likewise may be said, heco muqui Cristo etc. If the question be asked, When? the accent is placed upon the last letter.


54, 55, 57. The native having counted to ten, says ten and one on it, etc., and at twenty says one man, sei dohme, for the reason of that being his full number of fingers and toes: for forty he says, two men, got dohme, and so on to a hundred, marqui dohme. After twenty the count is the same as with the ten, twenty and one on it, etc. These numerals have also their inflections:

1, sei, once, ses, 6, vusani, six times, vusanis, 2, G.o.dum, twice, gos, 7, seniovusani, seven times, seniovusanis, 3, veidum, thrice, veis, 8, gos navoi, eight times, gos navos, 4, nauoi, four times, navos, 9, vesmacoi, nine times, vesmacois, 5, marqui, five times, marquis, 10, macoi, ten times, macois.

The word _Already_, de, is thus added:

Gosade, Marquisade, Gosnavosade, Veisade, Vusanisade, Vesmacoisade, Navosade, Seniovusanisade, Macoisade.


56. To form these the numerals are put in the ablative with in, _tze_, which is placed afterward as the prepositions ever are. Setze, first; goctze, second; veictze, third; navoctze, fourth; marquitze, fifth; vusanitze, sixth; seniovasanitze, seventh; gosnavoctze, eighth; vesmacoitze, ninth; macoitze, tenth. First is also called vatzut nerentze.

58. On the third day, is expressed, Veie queco; on the fourth day, Navoe queco, etc.



Nuestro Padre, que estas en el cielo. Tu nombre sea grandemente creido. A nosotros venga tu reino. Tu voluntad aqui en la tierra se haga, come se hace en el cielo. Nuestra comida cotidiana danosla hoy. Ten nos lastima limpiandonos nuestros pecados, asi como tenemos lastima a nuestros enemigos. No dexaras al Diablo, que nos hace caer en el pecado; mas guardanos del mal. Amen.

Tamo Nono, tevietze catzi, canne tegua uehva vitzua teradauh.

Tomo canne vene hasem amo Queidagua. Amo canne hinadocauh iuhtepatz endaugh, tenictze endahteven. Quecovi tamo badagua oqui tame mie. Tame naventziuh tame piuidcdo tamo canade emea; ein tamide tamo. Ovi tamo paven tziuhdahteven. Cana totzi Diablo tatacoritze tame huetudenta; na.s.sa tame hipur eadenitzenai Amen.


Our Father, who art in heaven. Thy name be greatly believed in. To us come thy kingdom. Thy will here on earth be done, as it is done in heaven. Our daily bread give us this day. Have pity on us, cleansing us of our sins, as we have pity on our enemies. Leave us not to the Devil, that he cause us to fall into sin, but keep us from evil. Amen.

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Grammatical Sketch of the Heve Language Part 4 summary

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