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If, instead of the piece 1, we were to take pieces as long as the rod 10, we could count 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90. In the didactic material there are frames containing cards on which are printed such numbers from 10 to 90. These numbers are fixed into a frame in such a way that the figures 1 to 9 can be slipped in covering the zero. If the zero of 10 is covered by 1 the result is 11, if with 2 it becomes 12, and so on, until the last 9. Then we pa.s.s to the twenties (the second ten), and so on, from ten to ten. (Fig. 42.)
For the beginning of this exercise with the cards marking the tens we can use the rods. As we begin with the first ten (10) in the frame, we take the rod 10. We then place the small rod 1 next to rod 10, and at the same time slip in the number 1, covering the zero of the 10. Then we take rod 1 and figure 1 away from the frame, and put in their place rod 2 next to rod 10, and figure 2 over the zero in the frame, and so on, up to 9. To advance farther we should need to use two rods of 10 to make 20.
The children show much enthusiasm when learning these exercises, which demand from them two sets of activities, and give them in their work clearness of idea.
In writing and arithmetic we have gathered the fruits of a laborious education which consisted in coordinating the movements and gaining a first knowledge of the world. This culture comes as a natural consequence of man's first efforts to put himself into intelligent communication with the world.
All those early acquisitions which have brought order into the child's mind, would be wasted were they not firmly established by means of written language and of figures. Thus established, however, these experiences open up an unlimited field for future education. What we have done, therefore, is to introduce the child to a higher level--the level of culture--and he will now be able to pa.s.s on to a _school_, but not the school we know to-day, where, irrationally, we try to give culture to minds not yet prepared or _educated to receive it_.
To preserve the health of their minds, which have been _exercised_ and not _fatigued_ by the order of the work, our children must have a new kind of school for the acquisition of culture. My experiments in the continuation of this method for older children are already far advanced.
A brief description such as this, of the _means_ which are used in the "Children's House," may perhaps give the reader the impression of a logical and convincing system of education. But the importance of my method does not lie in the organization itself, but _in the effects which it produces on the child_. It is the _child_ who proves the value of this method by his spontaneous manifestations, which seem to reveal the laws of man's inner development.[B] Psychology will perhaps find in the "Children's Houses" a laboratory which will bring more truths to light than thus. .h.i.therto recognized; for the essential factor in psychological research, especially in the field of psychogenesis, the origin and development of the mind, must be the establishment of normal conditions for the free development of thought.
[B] See the chapters on Discipline in my larger works.
As is well known, we leave the children _free_ in their work, and in all actions which are not of a disturbing kind. That is, we _eliminate_ disorder, which is "bad," but allow to that which is orderly and "good" the most complete liberty of manifestation.
The results obtained are surprising, for the children have shown a love of work which no one suspected to be in them, and a calm and an orderliness in their movements which, surpa.s.sing the limits of correctness have entered into those of "grace." The spontaneous discipline, and the obedience which is seen in the whole cla.s.s, const.i.tute the most striking result of our method.
The ancient philosophical discussion as to whether man is born good or evil is often brought forward in connection with my method, and many who have supported it have done so on the ground that it provides a demonstration of man's natural goodness. Very many others, on the contrary, have opposed it, considering that to leave children free is a dangerous mistake, since they have in them innate tendencies to evil.
I should like to put the question upon a more positive plane.
In the words "good" and "evil" we include the most varying ideas, and we confuse them especially _in our practical dealings with little children_.
The tendencies which we stigmatize as _evil_ in little children of three to six years of age are often merely those which cause _annoyance_ to us adults when, not understanding their needs, we try to prevent their _every movement_, their every _attempt to gain experience for themselves in the world_ (by touching everything, etc.). The child, however, through this _natural tendency_, is led to _coordinate his movements_ and to collect impressions, especially sensations of touch, so that when prevented he _rebels_, and this rebellion forms almost the whole of his "naughtiness."
What wonder is it that the evil disappears when, if we give the right _means_ for development and leave full liberty to use them, rebellion has no more reason for existence?
Further, by the subst.i.tution of a series of outbursts of _joy_ for the old series of outbursts of _rage_, the moral physiognomy of the child comes to a.s.sume a calm and gentleness which make him appear a different being.
It is we who provoked the children to the violent manifestations of a real _struggle for existence_. In order to exist _according to the needs of their psychic development_ they were often obliged to s.n.a.t.c.h from us the things which seemed necessary to them for the purpose.
They had to move contrary to our laws, or sometimes to struggle with other children to wrest from them the objects of their desire.
On the other hand, if we give children the _means of existence_, the struggle for it disappears, and a vigorous expansion of life takes its place. This question involves a hygienic principle connected with the nervous system during the difficult period when the brain is still rapidly growing, and should be of great interest to specialists in children's diseases and nervous derangements. The inner life of man and the beginnings of his intellect are controlled by special laws and vital necessities which cannot be forgotten if we are aiming at health for mankind.
For this reason, an educational method, which cultivates and protects the inner activities of the child, is not a question which concerns merely the school or the teachers; it is a universal question which concerns the family, and is of vital interest to mothers.
To go more deeply into a question is often the only means of answering it rightly. If, for instance, we were to see men fighting over a piece of bread, we might say: "How bad men are!" If, on the other hand, we entered a well-warmed eating-house, and saw them quietly finding a place and choosing their meal without any envy of one another, we might say: "How good men are!" Evidently, the question of absolute good and evil, intuitive ideas of which guide us in our superficial judgment, goes beyond such limitations as these. We can, for instance, provide excellent eating-houses for an entire people without directly affecting the question of their morals. One might say, indeed, that to judge by appearances, a well-fed people are _better, quieter, and commit less crime_ than a nation that is ill-nourished; but whoever draws from that the conclusion that to make men good it is _enough_ to feed them, will be making an obvious mistake.
It cannot be denied, however, that _nourishment_ will be an essential factor in obtaining goodness, in the sense that it will _eliminate_ all the _evil acts, and the bitterness_ caused by lack of bread.
Now, in our case, we are dealing with a far deeper need--the nourishment of man's inner life, and of his higher functions. The bread that we are dealing with is the bread of the spirit, and we are entering into the difficult subject of the satisfaction of man's psychic needs.
We have already obtained a most interesting result, in that we have found it possible to present _new means_ of enabling children to reach a higher level of calm and goodness, and we have been able to establish these means by experience. The whole foundation of our results rests upon these means which we have discovered, and which may be divided under two heads--the _organization of work_, and liberty.
It is the perfect organization of work, permitting the possibility of self-development and giving outlet for the energies, which procures for each child the beneficial and calming _satisfaction_. And it is under such conditions of work that liberty leads to a perfecting of the activities, and to the attainment of a fine discipline which is in itself the result of that new quality of _calmness_ that has been developed in the child.
Freedom without organization of work would be useless. The child left _free_ without means of work would go to waste, just as a new-born baby, if _left free_ without nourishment, would die of starvation.
_The organization of the work_, therefore, is the corner-stone of this new structure of goodness; but even that organization would be in vain without the _liberty_ to make use of it, and without freedom for the expansion of all those energies which spring from the satisfaction of the child's highest activities.
Has not a similar phenomenon occurred also in the history of man? The history of civilization is a history of successful attempts to organize work and to obtain liberty. On the whole, man's goodness has also increased, as is shown by his progress from barbarism to civilization, and it may be said that crime, the various forms of wickedness, cruelty and violence have been gradually decreasing during this pa.s.sage of time.
The _criminality_ of our times, as a matter of fact, has been compared to a form of _barbarism_ surviving in the midst of civilized peoples.
It is, therefore, through the better organization of work that society will probably attain to a further purification, and in the meanwhile it seems unconsciously to be seeking the overthrow of the last barriers between itself and liberty.
If this is what we learn from society, how great should be the results among little children from three to six years of age if the organization of their work is complete, and their freedom absolute? It is for this reason that to us they seem so good, like heralds of hope and of redemption.
If men, walking as yet so painfully and imperfectly along the road of work and of freedom, have become better, why should we fear that the same road will prove disastrous to the children?
Yet, on the other hand, I would not say that the goodness of our little ones in their freedom will solve the problem of the absolute goodness or wickedness of man. We can only say that we have made a contribution to the cause of goodness by removing obstacles which were the cause of violence and of rebellion.
Let us "render, therefore, unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and unto G.o.d the things that are G.o.d's."